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Introduction to Computers

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Computers"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Computers

2 Chapter Goals Describe the history of computer hardware and software
Describe the changing role of the computer user Distinguish between systems programmers and applications programmers Distinguish between computing as a tool and computing as a discipline List the basic components of a computer system Understand what a Computer Program is List the Programming Life-Cycle Phases 25

3 Computing Systems Hardware The physical elements of a computing system (printer, circuit boards, wires, keyboard…) Software The programs that provide the instructions for a computer to execute 3

4 Early History of Computing
Abacus An early device to record numeric values Blaise Pascal Mechanical device to add, subtract, divide & multiply Joseph Jacquard Jacquard’s Loom, the punched card Charles Babbage Analytical Engine 6

5 Early History of Computing
Ada Lovelace First Programmer Alan Turing Turing Machine, Artificial Intelligence Testing Harvard Mark I, ENIAC, UNIVAC I Early computers launch new era in mathematics, physics, engineering and economics 7

6 First Generation Hardware (1951-1959)
Vacuum Tubes Large, not very reliable, generated a lot of heat Magnetic Drum Memory device that rotated under a read/write head Card Readers  Magnetic Tape Drives Sequential auxiliary storage devices 8

7 Second Generation Hardware (1959-1965)
Transistor Replaced vacuum tube, fast, small, durable, cheap Magnetic Cores Replaced magnetic drums, information available instantly Magnetic Disks Replaced magnetic tape, data can be accessed directly 9

8 Third Generation Hardware (1965-1971)
Integrated Circuits Replaced circuit boards, smaller, cheaper, faster, more reliable. Transistors Now used for memory construction Terminal An input/output device with a keyboard and screen 10

9 Fourth Generation Hardware (1971-?)
Large-scale Integration Great advances in chip technology PCs, the Commercial Market, Workstations Personal Computers were developed as new companies like Apple and Atari came into being. Workstations emerged. 11

10 Parallel Computing and Networking
Computers rely on interconnected central processing units that increase processing speed. Networking ARPANET and LANs  Internet 12

11 First Generation Software (1951-1959)
Machine Language Computer programs were written in binary (1s and 0s) Assembly Languages and translators Programs were written in artificial programming languages and were then translated into machine language Programmer Changes Programmers divide into application programmers and systems programmers 13

12 Second Generation Software (1959-1965)
High Level Languages Use English-like statements and make programming easier. Fortran, COBOL, Lisp are examples. High-Level Languages Assembly Language Machine Language 14

13 Third Generation Software (1965-1971)
Systems Software utility programs, language translators, and the operating system, which decides which programs to run and when. Separation between Users and Hardware Computer programmers began to write programs to be used by people who did not know how to program 15

14 Third Generation Software (1965-1971)
Application Package Systems Software High-Level Languages Assembly Language Machine Language 16

15 Fourth Generation Software (1971-1989)
Structured Programming Pascal, C, C++ New Application Software for Users Spreadsheets, word processors, database management systems 17

16 Fifth Generation Software (1990- present)
Microsoft The Windows operating system, and other Microsoft application programs dominate the market Object-Oriented Design Based on a hierarchy of data objects (i.e. Java) World Wide Web Allows easy global communication through the Internet New Users Today’s user needs no computer knowledge 18

17 Applications Programmer Domain-Specific Programs
Computing as a Tool Programmer / User Systems Programmer (builds tools) Applications Programmer (uses tools) Domain-Specific Programs User with No Computer Background 20

18 Computing as a Discipline
What can be (efficiently) automated? Four Necessary Skills Algorithmic Thinking Representation Programming Design 21

19 Computing as a Discipline
What do you think? Is Computer Science a mathematical, scientific, or engineering discipline? 22

20 Systems Areas of Computer Science
Algorithms and Data Structures Programming Languages Architecture Operating Systems Software Methodology and Engineering Human-Computer Communication 23

21 Application Areas of Computer Science
Numerical and Symbolic Computation Databases and Information Retrieval Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Graphics Organizational Informatics Bioinformatics 24

22 Computer Components-- Hardware

23 Memory Unit is an ordered sequence of storage cells, each capable of holding a piece of information each cell has its own unique address the information held can be input data, computed values, or your program instructions.

24 Memory Unit

25 RAM and ROM RAM stands for Random Access Memory
Inherent in the idea of being able to access each location is the ability to change the contents of each location ROM stands for Read Only Memory The contents in locations in ROM cannot be changed RAM is volatile, ROM is not This means that RAM does not retain its bit configuration when the power is turned off, but ROM does

26 Secondary Storage Devices
Because most of main memory is volatile and limited, it is essential that there be other types of storage devices where programs and data can be stored when they are no longer being processed Secondary storage devices can be installed within the computer box at the factory or added later as needed

27 Magnetic Tape The first truly mass auxiliary storage device was the magnetic tape drive

28 Magnetic Disks A read/write head travels across a spinning magnetic disk, retrieving or recording data

29 Compact Disks A CD drive uses a laser to read information stored optically on a plastic disk CD-ROM is Read-Only Memory DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disk

30 Peripherals are input, output, or auxiliary storage devices attached to a computer Input Devices include keyboard and mouse. Output Devices include printers, video display, LCD screens. Auxiliary/Secondary Storage Devices include disk drives, scanners, CD-ROM and DVD-ROM drives, modems, sound cards, speakers, and digital cameras.

31 Central Processing Unit
has 2 components to execute program instructions Arithmetic/Logic Unit performs arithmetic operations, and makes logical comparisons. Control Unit controls the order in which your program instructions are executed.

32 Flow of Information The parts are connected to one another by a collection of wires called a bus

33 The Fetch-Execute Cycle
Fetch the next instruction Decode the instruction Get data if needed Execute the instruction

34 The Fetch-Execute Cycle

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