Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Introduction to Computers. 2 25 Chapter Goals Describe the history of computer hardware and software Describe the changing role of the computer user.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to Computers. 2 25 Chapter Goals Describe the history of computer hardware and software Describe the changing role of the computer user."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Introduction to Computers

2 2 25 Chapter Goals Describe the history of computer hardware and software Describe the changing role of the computer user Distinguish between systems programmers and applications programmers Distinguish between computing as a tool and computing as a discipline List the basic components of a computer system Understand what a Computer Program is List the Programming Life-Cycle Phases

3 3 3 Hardware The physical elements of a computing system (printer, circuit boards, wires, keyboard…) Software The programs that provide the instructions for a computer to execute Computing Systems

4 4 6 Abacus An early device to record numeric values Blaise Pascal Mechanical device to add, subtract, divide & multiply Joseph Jacquard Jacquards Loom, the punched card Charles Babbage Analytical Engine Early History of Computing

5 5 7 Ada Lovelace First Programmer Alan Turing Turing Machine, Artificial Intelligence Testing Harvard Mark I, ENIAC, UNIVAC I Early computers launch new era in mathematics, physics, engineering and economics Early History of Computing

6 6 8 Vacuum Tubes Large, not very reliable, generated a lot of heat Magnetic Drum Memory device that rotated under a read/write head Card Readers Magnetic Tape Drives Sequential auxiliary storage devices First Generation Hardware ( )

7 7 9 Transistor Replaced vacuum tube, fast, small, durable, cheap Magnetic Cores Replaced magnetic drums, information available instantly Magnetic Disks Replaced magnetic tape, data can be accessed directly Second Generation Hardware ( )

8 8 10 Integrated Circuits Replaced circuit boards, smaller, cheaper, faster, more reliable. Transistors Now used for memory construction Terminal An input/output device with a keyboard and screen Third Generation Hardware ( )

9 9 11 Large-scale Integration Great advances in chip technology PCs, the Commercial Market, Workstations Personal Computers were developed as new companies like Apple and Atari came into being. Workstations emerged. Fourth Generation Hardware (1971-?)

10 10 12 Parallel Computing Computers rely on interconnected central processing units that increase processing speed. Networking ARPANET and LANs Internet Parallel Computing and Networking

11 11 13 Machine Language Computer programs were written in binary (1s and 0s) Assembly Languages and translators Programs were written in artificial programming languages and were then translated into machine language Programmer Changes Programmers divide into application programmers and systems programmers First Generation Software ( )

12 12 14 High Level Languages Use English-like statements and make programming easier. Fortran, COBOL, Lisp are examples. High-Level Languages Assembly Language Machine Languag e Second Generation Software ( )

13 13 15 Third Generation Software ( ) Systems Software – utility programs, – language translators, – and the operating system, which decides which programs to run and when. Separation between Users and Hardware Computer programmers began to write programs to be used by people who did not know how to program

14 14 16 Application Package Systems Software High-Level Languages Assembly Language Machine Language Third Generation Software ( )

15 15 17 Structured Programming Pascal, C, C++ New Application Software for Users Spreadsheets, word processors, database management systems Fourth Generation Software ( )

16 16 18 Microsoft The Windows operating system, and other Microsoft application programs dominate the market Object-Oriented Design Based on a hierarchy of data objects (i.e. Java) World Wide Web Allows easy global communication through the Internet New Users Todays user needs no computer knowledge Fifth Generation Software (1990- present)

17 17 20 Programmer / User Applications Programmer (uses tools) User with No Computer Background Systems Programmer (builds tools) Domain-Specific Programs Computing as a Tool

18 18 21 Computing as a Discipline What can be (efficiently) automated? Four Necessary Skills 1.Algorithmic Thinking 2.Representation 3.Programming 4.Design

19 19 Is Computer Science a mathematical, scientific, or engineering discipline? 22 What do you think? Computing as a Discipline

20 20 23 Systems Areas of Computer Science Algorithms and Data Structures Programming Languages Architecture Operating Systems Software Methodology and Engineering Human-Computer Communication

21 21 24 Application Areas of Computer Science Numerical and Symbolic Computation Databases and Information Retrieval Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Graphics Organizational Informatics Bioinformatics

22 22 Computer Components-- Hardware

23 23 Memory Unit is an ordered sequence of storage cells, each capable of holding a piece of information each cell has its own unique address the information held can be input data, computed values, or your program instructions.

24 24 Memory Unit

25 25 RAM and ROM RAM stands for Random Access Memory –Inherent in the idea of being able to access each location is the ability to change the contents of each location ROM stands for Read Only Memory –The contents in locations in ROM cannot be changed RAM is volatile, ROM is not –This means that RAM does not retain its bit configuration when the power is turned off, but ROM does

26 26 Secondary Storage Devices Because most of main memory is volatile and limited, it is essential that there be other types of storage devices where programs and data can be stored when they are no longer being processed Secondary storage devices can be installed within the computer box at the factory or added later as needed

27 27 Magnetic Tape The first truly mass auxiliary storage device was the magnetic tape drive

28 28 Magnetic Disks A read/write head travels across a spinning magnetic disk, retrieving or recording data

29 29 Compact Disks A CD drive uses a laser to read information stored optically on a plastic disk CD-ROM is Read- Only Memory DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disk

30 30 Peripherals are input, output, or auxiliary storage devices attached to a computer – Input Devices include keyboard and mouse. – Output Devices include printers, video display, LCD screens. – Auxiliary/Secondary Storage Devices include disk drives, scanners, CD-ROM and DVD-ROM drives, modems, sound cards, speakers, and digital cameras.

31 31 Central Processing Unit has 2 components to execute program instructions – Arithmetic/Logic Unit performs arithmetic operations, and makes logical comparisons. – Control Unit controls the order in which your program instructions are executed.

32 32 Flow of Information The parts are connected to one another by a collection of wires called a bus

33 33 The Fetch-Execute Cycle Fetch the next instruction Decode the instruction Get data if needed Execute the instruction

34 34 The Fetch-Execute Cycle

Download ppt "1 Introduction to Computers. 2 25 Chapter Goals Describe the history of computer hardware and software Describe the changing role of the computer user."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google