Types of Government Monarchy Oligarchy Dictatorship Totalitarian Democracy Anarchy
Monarchies A government with a hereditary ruler A king or queen that inherits the position from their parents
Monarchies Absolute Monarchy Until about the 1600s, monarchs had unlimited authority to rule. This is an absolute monarchy Constitutional Monarchy In most countries with monarchs, the power of the hereditary ruler is limited by the country’s constitution and laws England has a Constitutional Monarchy
Oligarchy Power is given to a small group Ordinary citizens have little say in what goes on with the government The government of Panem in the Hunger Games could be considered an Oligarchy
Dictatorship Dictators exercise complete control over the state The usually take power by force To stay in power, most dictators rely on intimidation and persecution via the police and military Saddam Hussein, Joseph Stalin, and Adolf Hitler could all be considered Dictators
Totalitarianism Many dictators impose totalitarian rule over their people In a totalitarian state government control extends to almost all aspects of people’s lives They ban political opposition Regulate what industries and farmers produce They suppress individual freedom, dictating what people should believe They do this through media propaganda, scare tactics and violence North Korea could be considered to have a Totalitarian government
Democracy Government in which the people rule Democracy began in Athens, Greece EVERY citizen of Athens was expected to participate in the cities government This was a direct democracy Every citizen was allowed to debate on every law or tax that was proposed Would this type of Democracy work in America?
Democracy Direct Democracy All citizens have an equal voice Meaning every single citizen participated in the debates and voted first hand Representative Democracy The citizens choose a smaller group to represent them, make laws, and govern on their behalf However, the people remain the source of the government’s authority
Anarchy No government at all People are allowed to do whatever they want Some parts of Afghanistan are ruled by Anarchy What are the problems with Anarchy?
The Social Contract Government is only legitimate if the people agree to be governed “Contract” between the government and the people Locke’s idea of The Social Contract was the inspiration for Thomas Jefferson’s words in the Declaration of Independence By entering the social contract, you agree to give up unlimited freedom to ensure certain unalienable rights are guaranteed.
John Locke First wrote against the divine right of kings Which argued that kings were given their power by God Second Treatise of Government (1689) Had several thoughts on equality, human nature, and the role of the government
John Locke Said that differences exist in people and these differences matter Especially when it comes to who rules the country Not everyone is equal If all adults were equal, then all of them would be eligible to become president, regardless of their qualifications
John Locke Tabula Rasa People are born with a blank slate People are inherently good. They won’t always go out and try to conquer everything People are only concerned with what we can actually protect and what matters to use Knowledge and morals comes from experience Nature vs nurture?
Thomas Hobbes Leviathan (1659) Complete opposite of Locke Locke believed that freedoms are protected by the law While Hobbes believes that freedom is the absence of law Does this mean Hobbes believes in anarchy?
Thomas Hobbes He thought human nature was evil He believed in total control, because without control, life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” So what kind of government was Hobbes advocating?
Jean-Jacque Rousseau “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” “The Sovereign, having no force other than the legislative power, acts only by means of the laws; and the laws being solely the authentic acts of the general will, the Sovereign cannot act (except) when the people is assembled.” “Every law the people have not ratified in person is null and void — is, in fact, not a law.” “The legislative power belongs to the people, and can belong to it alone”
Jean-Jacque Rousseau Believed that any government in which you have to give up certain rights is not freedom at all, it is slavery. Agreed with Locke that legitimate political power comes from the consent of the governed Influenced modern day Separation of Powers
Exit Slip Use your notes to Compare and Contrast the 3 Enlightenment thinkers that we have discussed. For example, how are their political beliefs alike? How are they different?