3 Types of GovernmentThe type of government a nation has can be classified as one of three main types:DemocracyDirect DemocracyRepresentative Democracy/RepublicMonarchyConstitutional MonarchyDictatorship
4 DemocracyA type of government where government authority is based on people’s consentDirect Democracy: When the people vote on ALL issues directly.Representative Democracy: People elect / vote for representatives to make government decisions for them.Not ALL decisions are made by the representatives.Many issues are voted on by the people.
5 History of Democracy Athens: The First Democracy Arose in ancient Athens(Greece) in the 5th century B.C.The word democracy is Greek for “people- power.”Citizens of Athens assembled to make important decisions facing their city-state.They voted on issues directlyDirect democracy
6 History of DemocracyThe Romans developed the first representative democracy.Different social groups elected their own representativesMet in assemblies like the Senate.These representatives elected Consuls to act as executives.Ran the government and enforced the laws.
7 History of DemocracyLater in history, various countries developed their own national assemblies of elected representatives.In England, landowners elected representatives to the House of Commons, one of two houses in the English Parliament.When the English set up colonies in N.A. each colony had its own colonial legislature.After the United States became independent, it created an elected national assembly known as Congress.
8 History of DemocracyIn a democracy, people also enjoy certain basic individual rights, like free speech.This gives then the confidence to criticize the government freely.
9 MonarchyA form of government where the ruler inherits power to control the government (hereditary rule) and he decides what decisions are to be made.Constitutional Monarchy: A government w/ a monarch as head of state and a parliament or other legislature that makes the laws. (modern)Absolute Monarchy: the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government; his or her powers are NOT LIMITED by a constitution or by the law. (traditional)
10 Monarchy Oldest of the 3 forms of government. The pharaoh of Egypt was a powerful monarch.Main characteristic: ruler inherits power.When the ruler dies, power automatically passes to one of the monarch’s children or close relatives.
11 History of a MonarchyIn older forms, the king or queen claimed absolute power over his or her subjects.Rulers claimed to hold their power by “divine right”- or the will of God.Ordinary people had no rights or freedoms, except those the monarch allowed.Charles I, being crowned by a hand from a cloud, possibly by God
12 History of a Monarchy- continued In England, in 1215, King John signed the Magna Carta.A document that limited the king’s power in England.Gave citizen’s freedom from prison and protection of their property, except after a trial by a jury or according to the laws of the land.Limited the king’s right to raise new taxes.
13 History of a Monarchy- continued In more recent times, many monarchs have shared power with an elected legislatureSubjects of the monarch enjoy many traditional, protected rights.This is the constitutional monarchy.Example: Great BritainToday, Britain has a hereditary monarch and an elected Parliament.The monarch serves as a symbolic head of state, while elected officials in Parliament govern the country.
15 DictatorshipA system of government in which a single person or small group of people has the power and tells everyone else what to do.NOT power inherited and usually gained by seizing power violently by force.
16 DictatorsDictators seize control by force, or is placed into a position of authority by others.Free to do as they please, while other citizens in a dictatorship have few rights.Ordinary citizens in a dictatorship have very little influence over government policies.
17 Dictatorship Main advantage: Decisions can be made quickly. In ancient times, the Romans appointed a dictator when they were at war and in needed strong leadership.When the war was over, the dictator was supposed to give up his power.Rome’s Julius Caesar was a dictator.
18 20th Century DictatorsIn the 20th century, modern dictators like Adolf Hitler in Germany, Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union (modern day Russia), and Saddam Hussein in Iraq seized power.
19 20th Century DictatorsEach of these brutal dictators used modern technology to impose their will on fellow citizensRadio and television, magazines and movies were controlled by the dictator and repeated the dictators views.Other views were suppressed.
20 20th Century DictatorsIndividuals had no rights and very little influence over the government.Those who spoke out against the dictator were sent to concentration camps or gulags, where they were severely punished or killed.The dictator was NOT limited by the rule of the law or any other restraints.
21 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens DemocracyPeople participate in govt. decision-making by voting and running for office.They also enjoy many basic individual rights.MonarchyA FEW people participate by advising the monarch.DictatorshipPeople have NO right to criticize or oppose government actions; however,They can participate in activities organized by the GOVERNMENT.
22 Other “Types” of Government TheocracyA government ruled by religious leaders.Islamic Fundamentalism: A movement that seeks to convert the world to the strict codes of behavior and laws of Islam.It dates back several hundred years.
23 More on TheocracyThe idea that government ideas are based, or follow the beliefs of ideas of a certain religion.Example: An Islamic state is a state that has adopted Islam, specifically Sharia, as its foundations for political institutions, or laws, exclusively, and has implemented the Islamic ruling system.
24 Just to think about it???Can the United States be considered a Theocracy?Why?
25 Political Cartoons- Democracy, Monarchy, Dictatorship, or Theocracy
26 Political Cartoons- Democracy, Monarchy, Dictatorship, or Theocracy