MANAGEMENT THEORIES Contemporary Viewpoint Quantitative Viewpoint Behavioral Viewpoint Classical Viewpoint Pre-classical Contributors Systems Theory Operations Research Early Behaviorists Scientific Management Contingency Theory Operations Management Hawthorne Studies Administrative Management Emerging Views Management Information Science Human Relations Movements Bureaucratic Management Behavioral Science Approach Major viewpoints in the development of modern management
Management Prior 1900 :Worker as a Social Animal After 1900:Worker as a Machine After Hawthorne Studies by (E.Mayo) Worker should be taken as a human! “Father of Human Relation” W
Hawthorne Studies Group of studies conducted at Hawthorne plant of an Electric company during 1920s and 1930s, the result of which ultimately led to the human relation view of Management.
Hawthorne Studies Studies conducted by Elton Mayo in 3 set of experiments. Q: How productivity varies by varying work environmental factors like Light, Heat, Room Color, and Social interaction among Group members? A: Productivity is largely a Function of Worker’s Attitude!
Hawthorne Studies Studies demonstrated that: 1.Human’s social ang psychol- ogical needs are as important as money. 2.Social interaction of Work Group is as important as Organization of actual work. 3. Human factor can’t be ignored in any management planning.
Hawthorne Effect Possibility that individuals singled out for a study may improve their performance simply because of the added attention received from researchers, rather than because of any specific factors being tested.
Behavioral Theorists 2. Human Relation Views and Human Relation Movements. Abraham Maslow(1908-70) (Hierarchy of Needs) Douglas McGregor (1906- 64) (Theory X and Theory Y)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self-actualisation
McGregor’s Theory X & Y Theory X Work is natural Capable of self-direction Seek responsibility Can make good decisions Work avoiding Need to control Avoid responsibility Workers seek security Theory Y
Behavioral Theorists 3.Behavioral Science : This approach emphasising scientific research as the basis for developing theories about human behavior in organizations, and provide practical guidelines for managers.
Quantitative 1. Operations Research 2. Operations Management 3. MIS