Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

MANAGEMENT RICHARD L. DAFT. The Evolution of Management Thinking CHAPTER 2.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "MANAGEMENT RICHARD L. DAFT. The Evolution of Management Thinking CHAPTER 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 MANAGEMENT RICHARD L. DAFT

2 The Evolution of Management Thinking CHAPTER 2

3 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 Understand how historical forces influences the practice of management. Identify and explain major developments in the history of management thought. Describe the major components of the classical and humanistic management perspectives. Discuss the management science perspective and its current use in organizations. Explain the major concepts of systems theory, the contingency view, and total quality management. Explain what a learning organization is and why this approach has become important in recent years. Describe the management changes brought about by a technology-driven workplace, including the role of supply chain management, customer relationship management, and outsourcing. Learning Outcomes

4 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4 Are You a New-Style or an Old-Style Manager? Management and managers are undergoing tremendous change Past strategies are no longer effective in today’s dynamic business environment History provides perspective and a broader view Manager can find patterns and insight from history

5 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 5 Management and Organization Managers must “see the big picture” –Social Forces: culture and values –Political Forces: political and legal institutions and systems –Economic Forces: availability and distribution of resources Mangers must face environmental turbulence

6 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 6 Management Perspectives Over Time

7 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 Classical Perspective The early study of management. 19 th – late 20 th Century –Scientific Management –Bureaucratic Organizations –Administrative Principles Very powerful, gave companies fundamental skill for high productivity –Helped US surge in management techniques

8 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 Scientific Management Frederick Winslow Taylor ( ), father of scientific management Focus on improving efficiency and labor productivity Workers could be retooled like machines Managers would need to change Incentive systems for meeting standards Others added to the theories Lillian M. Gilbreth added a human component to the study

9 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 Characteristics of Scientific Management

10 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 10 Bureaucratic Organizations Max Weber ( ), a German theorist introduced the bureaucratic theories Rational authority—more efficient and adaptable to change Selection and advancement would be focused on competence and technical qualifications The term bureaucracy has taken on a negative tone, associated with endless “red tape”

11 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 11 Characteristics of Weberian Bureaucracy

12 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 12 Administrative Principles Henri Foyal ( ), French mining engineer and other contributors led the ideas Foyal wrote down his own management practices In the text, General and Industrial Management; 14 general principles were outlined Several of the principles include: –Unity of Command –Division of Work –Unity of Direction –Scalar Chain Foyal identified five functions of management: Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, and Controlling

13 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13 Humanistic Perspective Led by Mary Parker Follett and Chester Barnard Importance of understanding human behaviors: needs, attitudes and social interactions –Human Relations Movement –Human Resources Perspective –Behavioral Sciences

14 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 14 Human Relations Movement Control comes from the individual worker rather than authoritarian control The Hawthorne studies found increased output due to managers’ better treatment of employees –Money mattered a great deal –Productivity increased from feelings of importance Created a focus on positive treatment of employees

15 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 15 Human Resources Perspective Focus on job tasks and theories of motivation –Reduce dehumanizing or demeaning work –Allow workers to use full potential –Main contributors: Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs McGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y Perspective cam from the idea that cows gave more milk when they were more satisfied

16 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 16 Theory X and Theory Y

17 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 17 Behavioral Sciences Approach Scientific methods that draw from sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics and other disciplines Focus on human behavior and interaction Organizational development came from behavioral sciences approach –Applied behavioral sciences to improve organizational health and effectiveness

18 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 18 Management Science Perspective Developed to meet changing and dynamic environment created from WWII Engaged mathematics, statistics and quantitative techniques to aid in decision making Increased study of management led by Peter Drucker Use of technology and programming for optimizing operations Introduced new subsets of management: –Operations Research –Operations Management –Information Technology

19 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 19 Recent Historical Trends Systems Theory. A holistic view of management as a interrelated parts to achieve a common purpose. Contingency View. Successful resolution of organizational problems depends on situations. Total Quality Management. Management of the total organization to deliver quality.

20 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 20 The Systems View of Organizations

21 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 21 Contingency View of Management

22 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 22 Total Quality Management W. Edward Deming, known as the father of the quality movement –US initially scoffed at Deming During the 1908s and 1990s, quality became a focus to meet global competition Four key elements of quality management: 1.Employee involvement 2.Focus on customer 3.Benchmarking 4.Continuous improvement

23 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 23 The Learning Organization Learning aids in the adaptation to change Peter Senge began the discussion about the learning organization All employees are engaged in identifying and solving problems Learning increases the capacity to learn and grow Move from efficiency to solving problems

24 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 24 Managing the Technology- Driven Workplace Most work is performed on computers in today’s workplace Companies use technology to communicate and collaborate Key technologies in today’s workplace: –Supply Chain Management –Customer Relationship Management –Outsourcing

25 chapter2 Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 25 Supply Chain for a Retail Organization


Download ppt "MANAGEMENT RICHARD L. DAFT. The Evolution of Management Thinking CHAPTER 2."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google