Presentation on theme: "The Evolution of Management Thinking"— Presentation transcript:
1The Evolution of Management Thinking GROUP 1:Caisido, Costes, Stefanowitz, Te
2Creative, dynamic management is a driving force behind the success of any business. In today’s marketplace, change is rapid and managers are expected to deal with a broad set of issues and needs .
3Management Perspectives Over Time Exhibit 2.1, p.4420002010The Technology-Driven Workplace19902010The Learning Organization1980Total Quality Management20001970Contingency Views200019502000Systems Theory1940Management Science Perspective19901930Humanistic Perspective19901890Classical194020101870
4Classical perspective (emerged in the 19th and early 20th century) In response to a problem businesses grapple with today:how to make businesses efficient operating machines.In the factory system, managers had the challenge of..coordinating a huge, unskilled labor forcecomplex production systemswide-ranging manufacturing operation.
5Scientific Management: Frederick Winslow Taylor Productivity could be improved only by a series of precise procedures developed from a scientific observation of a situationDevelop precise, standardized procedures for doing each jobSelect workers with appropriate abilitiesTrain workers in the standard proceduresPlan workProvide wage incentives for increased output
6Scientific Management While highly successful, this approach did not take into consideration the diversity of abilities and needs within the workforce.Did not appreciate social context of work and higher needs of workers.Did not acknowledge variance among individuals.Tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas.
7Administrative Principles Organization rather than the individualContributed to the development of bureaucratic organization
8Bureaucracy Organizations Division of labor with clear definitions of authority and responsibilitiesPositions organized in a hierarchy of authorityPersonnel are selected and promoted based on technical qualificationsAdministrative acts and decisions recorded in writingManagement is separate from the ownership of the organizationManagers subject to rules and procedures that will ensure reliable predictable behavior
9Humanistic Perspective: Mark Parker Follett and Chester Barnard Emphasis on human behaviors, needs and attitudes in the workplace over the economy and efficiency of production
10Humanistic Perspective: Human Relations Movement Emphasized satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity
11Humanistic Perspective: Human Resource Perspective Suggests jobs should be designed to meet higher-level needs by allowing workers to use their full potential
12Humanistic Perspective: Behavioral Sciences Approach Sub-field of the Humanistic Management PerspectiveUnderstand employee behavior and interaction in an organizational setting
13Based on needs satisfaction Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsSelf-actualizationEsteemBelongingnessSafetyPhysiologicalBased on needs satisfaction
14Theory X & Y: Douglas McGregor THEORY X ASSUMPTIONSDislike work –will avoid itMust be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishmentPrefer direction, avoid responsibility, little ambition, want securityTHEORY Y ASSUMPTIONSDo not dislike workSelf direction and self controlSeek responsibilityImagination, creativity widely distributedIntellectual potential only partially utilized
15Theory X & Y: Douglas McGregor Few companies today still use Theory XMany are trying Theory Y techniques
16Management Science Perspective Emerged after WW IIApplied mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques to managerial problemsOperations Research – mathematical modelingOperations Management – specializes in physical production of goods or servicesInformation Technology – reflected in management information systems
17Recent Historical Trends Systems TheoryContingency ViewTotal Quality Management (TQM)
18Systems Theoryviews an organization as a series of interconnected systems that affect and are effected by each other
19Contingency View of Management addresses one of the weaknesses of the classical perspective by viewing all employees and situations as unique, as opposed to uniform and generalizable.Successful resolution of organizational problems is thought to depend on managers’ identification of key variations in the situation at hand
20Total Quality Management (TQM) Focus on managing the total organization to deliver customer qualityEmployee involvementFocus on the customerBenchmarkingContinuous improvement