2 After studying this chapter you should be able to: Describe the three key elements of motivationIdentify early theories of motivation and evaluate their applicability today.Apply the predictions of self determination theory to intrinsic and extrinsic rewardsUnderstand the implications of employee engagement for managementCompare and contrast goal setting theory and management by objectivesContrast reinforcement theory and goal setting theoryDemonstrate how organizational justice is a reinforcement of equity theoryApply the key tenants of expectancy theory to motivating employeesCompare contemporary theories of motivationL E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
3 content 1. What is motivation? 2. Early theories of motivation 3. Contemporary theories of motivation4. Integrating contemporary theories of motivation.5. Summary and implications for managers
4 Definition of motivation: 1. What is motivation?Definition of motivation:The process that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
5 2. Early theories of motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of five needs:Physiological- hunger, thirst, loveSafety- security, protection from harmSocial- affection, acceptance , friendship.Esteem-, status, recognition, attention.self actualization – growth, our potential, self fulfillment.in which as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
7 1. Lower order need:Need that are satisfied externally such as: physiological and safety needs.2. Higher order need:Needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self actualization needs.3. Theory X:The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.4. Theory Y:The assumption that employees like work, are creative seek responsibility, and can exercise self direction.
8 Cont.5. Two factor theoryA theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation hygiene theory.6. Hygiene factors:Factors such as company policy and administration supervision and salary that when adequate in a job placate workers. When these factors are adequate people will not be dissatisfied.
9 McClelland’s theory of needs A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation.1. need for achievementDrive to excel to achieve in relationship to a set of standards and to strive to succeed2. need for powerThe need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise.3. need for affiliationThe desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
10 3. Contemporary theories of motivation 1. Self determination theory:A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effect of extrinsic motivation.2. Cognitive evaluation theory:A version of self determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tend to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling
11 cont 3. Self concordance: The degree to which people’s reasons for pursing goals are consistent with their interests and core values.4. Job engagement:The investment of an employee’s physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into job performance.5. Goal – setting theory:A theory that says that specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance.
12 cont 6. Management by objectives (MBO): A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress7. Self efficiency:An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.8. Reinforcement theory:A theory that says that behaviour is function of its consequences9. Social learning theory:The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience.
13 Cont.10. Equity theory:A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.What are the six choice for employees who perceive inequity?Change inputChange outputDistort perception of selfDistort perception of othersChoose a different referentLeave the field
14 Model of organizational justice Distributive justicePerceived fairness of outcomeOrganizational justiceOverall perception of what is fair in the workplaceProcedural justicePerceived fairness of process used to determine outcomeInteractional justicePerceived degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect
17 5. Summary and Managerial Implications 1. review the most established to determine their relevance in explaining turnover, productivity and outcomes2. Assess to predictive power of eachNeed theoriesSelf determination theoryGoal setting theoryReinforcement theoryEquity theory / organizational theoryExpectancy theory.Perceptions play a critical role in how people view the situation and how they act. Managers must work on managing perceptions and incorporate them into their understanding of the workplace. Individual decision making is also an important aspect in the workplace. In decision making most people use bounded rationality or satisfice. Managers should incorporate traditional methods with intuition and creativity to make better decisions.