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■ Essential Question: – What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa? ■ Warm Up Question:

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Presentation on theme: "■ Essential Question: – What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa? ■ Warm Up Question:"— Presentation transcript:

1 ■ Essential Question: – What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa? ■ Warm Up Question:

2 From 1880 to 1914 European nations used imperialism to dominate the continent of Africa

3 The arrival of Europeans changed Africa Before Europeans, Africa was divided into tribal clans …and powerful Islamic kingdoms During the Age of Exploration, Europeans explored the African coast …and brought African slaves to their colonies in America The Industrial Revolution led to imperialism in Africa in the mid-1800s

4 The first Europeans to explore the interior of Africa were missionaries & explorers In the 1870s, the discoveries of a missionary named David Livingstone increased European interest in Africa Reports of large deposits of natural resources & the rise of nationalism in Europe set off a race for African colonies Social Darwinism, steamboats, & industrial weapons encouraged the conquest of Africa

5 The race for African colonies was so fierce that Europeans became afraid wars would break out In 1884, 14 nations met at the Congress of Berlin to “set the rules” for colonizing in Africa Quick class discussion: What kind of rules do you think they came up with? Any nation could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations & showing it could control the area No African nations were invited to attend; No concern was given to ethic divisions in Africa

6 By 1914, Europeans controlled 90% of Africa France took most of west Africa Belgium claimed the Congo in central Africa Germany had many colonies throughout Africa These nations used African colonies to gain diamonds, tin, gold, rubber & built cash-crop plantations

7 The most dominant imperial power in Africa was Great Britain British industry fueled demand for raw materials Britain seized control of South Africa from the Dutch In 1882, Britain seized control of the Suez Canal from a French company Many citizens in England dreamed of a British colony from “Capetown to Cairo” England South Africa Egypt India Britain claimed colonies in Egypt & in East Africa

8 His DeBeers Company created diamond mines in South Africa The most important empire-builder in Africa was British businessman, Cecil Rhodes Rhodes gained new colonies for Britain in southern Africa Rhodes used his wealth to build railroads & telegraph lines in Africa

9 What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa? Europeans introduced new technologies like railroads, telegraph lines, & steamboats… …but transportation routes only connected areas that benefited European businessmen Europeans brought an end to the slave trade… …but Africans were paid low wages & exploited

10 What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa? Europeans built schools, churches, & hospitals… …but Africans were taught European culture Africans were unable to rule themselves, participate in voting, or learn professional skills In South Africa, the British segregated society called apartheid which remained in place for over 100 years Europeans profited off Africa’s raw materials & cheap African labor

11 Africans rebelled against European rule, but were defeated due to advanced European weaponry

12 Africa remained under the control of European imperialists from the 1880s until the 1950s & 1960s

13 The Chinese have always referred to themselves as the “Middle Kingdom” The Chinese viewed outsiders as barbarians & saw little value in trade with foreign merchants The Great Wall was built to protect China from barbarian attacks

14 But, outsiders came across the Silk Road for China’s exotic goods As a result, China became the dominant empire in Asia (and the world)

15 China eventually did trade which helped spread Chinese culture throughout Asia But, outside merchants always had to obey Chinese rules & show respect

16 ■ Text In 1644, northern invaders called Manchus conquered China & created the Qing Dynasty Qing China faced 2 challenges that would threaten China’s future strength A population boom led to a rise in the number of Chinese peasants & competition for land

17 European missionaries & merchants arrived in Asia with hopes of trading with China In 1793, Chinese Emperor Qian Long wrote a letter to answer a request for trade by British King George III: “Strange and costly objects do not interest me… As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures.“ What did Emperor Long say to King George?

18 The Chinese had little interest in trading with the West & were able to reject trade offers China had a healthy agricultural economy, large deposits of natural resources, & manufactured products like silk, cotton clothes, porcelain For decades, China exported goods to European merchants but refused to buy European products The British were desperate to find a product that the Chinese would buy…

19 …In the 1800s, the British smuggled opium from India into China By 1835, 12 million Chinese citizens were addicted to opium

20 The Chinese outlawed opium sales & appointed Commissioner Lin to end opium smuggling When Britain refused to end the opium trade, Commission Lin appealed directly to British Queen Victoria Read an excerpt from Commissioner Lin’s letter to Queen Victoria

21 The British refused to end the opium trade & China declared war on Britain Britain used its modern navy to easily win the Opium Wars (1839-1842)

22 The Treaty of Nanjing ended the Opium Wars: Britain received Hong Kong & extraterritorial rights in China ( foreigners were not subject to Chinese laws)

23 In addition to its foreign problems, China also faced major problems with its own people By 1850, China’s population grew so rapidly that agriculture could not keep up In 1853, Hong Xiuquan led the Taiping Rebellion in an attempt end poverty among peasants The Qing defeated the rebels in 1864 but the rebellion killed 20 million people & weakened China

24 Britain & other industrial powers took advantage of China’s weakness to force China to sign unequal trade treaties in particular ports By 1900, China was carved into a series of spheres of influences: areas where a foreign nation had exclusive trade rights

25 The division of China worried the USA that it would be shut out of Chinese trade In 1899, the USA proposed an Open Door Policy in China so merchants from all nations can trade freely

26 The growth of foreign influence, poverty among peasants, & Christianity upset many Chinese In 1900, frustrated Chinese led the Boxer Rebellion to expel foreigners from China An army of 19,000 British, French, American soldiers finally ended the Boxer Rebellion

27 The power of foreign imperialists & the violence of the Boxer Rebellion led to calls to reform China Reformers looked to the West for ways to fix China In 1911, Sun Yat-sen led an overthrow of the Qing Dynasty & created a democracy with a written constitution Sun’s goal was to promote nationalism, democracy, & economic security for all Chinese citizens Over 3,000 years of dynastic rule came to an end

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