Presentation on theme: "■ Essential Question: – What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa and India?"— Presentation transcript:
■ Essential Question: – What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa and India?
Unit X – Quiz 2 1.When did the Suez Canal open? 2.Why was it initially difficult for European powers to control their empires? 3.What was the British Raj? 4.How did Europeans adapt their lifestyles to tropical regions? 5.What was the Indian practice of sati? What happened to the practice under British rule?
Partition of Africa Board Game Use your ruler and map of Africa to carve out a 1 foot by 1 foot colony First come, first serve
From 1880 to 1914 European nations used imperialism to dominate the continent of Africa
The arrival of Europeans changed Africa Before Europeans, Africa was divided into tribal clans …and powerful Islamic kingdoms During the Age of Exploration, Europeans explored the African coast …and brought African slaves to their colonies in America The Industrial Revolution led to imperialism in Africa in the mid-1800s
The first Europeans to explore the interior of Africa were missionaries & explorers In the 1870s, the discoveries of a missionary named David Livingstone increased European interest in Africa Reports of large deposits of natural resources & the rise of nationalism in Europe set off a race for African colonies Social Darwinism, steamboats, & industrial weapons encouraged the conquest of Africa
The race for African colonies was so fierce that Europeans became afraid wars would break out In 1884, 14 nations met at the Congress of Berlin to “set the rules” for colonizing in Africa Quick class discussion: What kind of rules do you think they came up with? Any nation could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations & showing it could control the area No African nations were invited to attend; No concern was given to ethnic divisions in Africa
By 1914, Europeans controlled 90% of Africa France took most of west Africa Belgium claimed the Congo in central Africa Germany had many colonies throughout Africa These nations used African colonies to gain diamonds, tin, gold, rubber & built cash-crop plantations
The most dominant imperial power in Africa was Great Britain British industry fueled demand for raw materials Britain seized control of South Africa from the Dutch In 1882, Britain seized control of the Suez Canal from a French company Many citizens in England dreamed of a British colony from “Capetown to Cairo” England South Africa Egypt India Britain claimed colonies in Egypt & in East Africa
His DeBeers Company created diamond mines in South Africa The most important empire-builder in Africa was British businessman, Cecil Rhodes Rhodes gained new colonies for Britain in southern Africa Rhodes used his wealth to build railroads & telegraph lines in Africa
What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa? Europeans introduced new technologies like railroads, telegraph lines, & steamboats… …but transportation routes only connected areas that benefited European businessmen Europeans brought an end to the slave trade… …but Africans were paid low wages & exploited
What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa? Europeans built schools, churches, & hospitals… …but Africans were taught European culture Africans were unable to rule themselves, participate in voting, or learn professional skills In South Africa, the British segregated society called apartheid which remained in place for over 100 years Europeans profited off Africa’s raw materials & cheap African labor
Africans rebelled against European rule, but were defeated due to advanced European weaponry
Africa remained under the control of European imperialists from the 1880s until the 1950s & 1960s
■ Essential Question: – What was the impact of British imperialism in India?
During the Age of Imperialism from 1850 to 1914, Europeans dominated Africa & Asia During this era, no nation could match the industrial, military, or colonial power of Britain
Britain had so many colonies that it was said that the “sun never set on the British Empire” Among all of Britain’s colonies, the most valuable was India How did India become the “brightest jewel in the crown”?
After Vasco da Gama’s discovery of a water route to India in 1498, European trade with India increased In the 1600s, Europeans gained a foothold in the Indian Ocean trade
The British East India Company was formed to trade exotic Asian goods in Europe & America The East India Company set up trade posts in major port cities in India By 1700, India’s Mughal Empire was in decline & small states ruled by a maharajah were formed Conflicts between Hindus & Muslims further weakened India The East India Co gained more control of India
The East India Company made huge profits creating plantations to harvest tea, coffee, cotton, & opium Raw materials like cotton helped fuel Britain’s industrial revolution Opium was refined in India & smuggled into China; Opium addition helped the British gain access to Chinese trade The East India Company sold cheap, British-made textiles to Indian people
From 1750 to 1850, the British East India Co ruled most of India with little interference from Britain To protect their trade & territories, British officials hired Indian soldiers called sepoys
By the 1850s, Indian resentment for the British was growing In 1857, rumors spread that sepoy gun cartridges supplied by the British by were greased with pork & beef fat Hindu & Muslim sepoys were outraged & rebelled against the British The Sepoy Mutiny lasted over 1 year; The British gov’t had to send troops to help the East India Co Execution of sepoys
The Sepoy Mutiny was a turning point in Indian history In 1858, the British gov’t took control from the East India Company & ruled India directly; British rule was called the Raj & lasted until 1947 The British government made important improvements in India including railroads, telegraph & telephone lines, roads, canals, dams, bridges British Queen Victoria assumed the title of “Empress of India” Britain also built schools, hospitals, irrigation projects, & medical improvements
The British emphasis on cash-crop plantations led to food shortages & famine in India (7 million Indians died due to starvation in 1876) British rule hurt the native Indian economy, further divided social classes, increased hostility between Muslims & Hindus
India was not the only European colony in Southeast Asia The Dutch East India Co gained control of the East Indies in the 1600s The Dutch profited from rubber, tin, oil resources & cash-crop plantations
India was not the only European colony in Southeast Asia In the 1840s, France seized control of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia in Indochina The French profited from rice plantations