2 Sect. 1 ObjectivesDescribe the diversity of species types on Earth, relating the difference between known numbers and estimated numbers.List and describe three levels of biodiversity.Explain four ways in which biodiversity is important to ecosystems and humans.Analyze the potential value of a single species.
3 Biodiversity(biological diversity) – the number of different species in a given area PlantsTrees, shrubs, flowers, weedsAnimalsMammals, insects, fish, crustaceansFungusInsectsBacteriaEtc.
4 How many are there? 1.7 million species are known Most are insects10 million species are estimated to exist
5 Levels of DiversitySpecies diversity – number of different species in an areaEcosystem diversity – variety of habitats, communitiesGenetic diversity –number of genescontained in allmembers of apopulation
6 What makes everything different? Genes (DNA) – code for different traits or characteristics that can be inheritedEveryone's is different (unless you are an identical twin)
7 Why is Biodiversity Important? All species are dependant on other species and are depended on by othersEveryone fits in the food web/chainIf you removeone link, all theothers will fall
8 – one species that many others depend on Keystone species – a species that is critical to the functioning of the ecosystem because it affects the survival and abundance of many other species– one species that many others depend on
9 Ex: Sea Otters 1. Otters killed for fur 2. Sea urchin population grew 3. Kelp disapeared
10 Ex: Prairie dogsTheir burrows act as homes to other creatures, including burrowing owls, badgers, rabbits, black-footed ferrets, snakes, salamanders, and insects.Their burrowing activity works to loosen and churn up the soil, increasing its ability to sustain plant life.Their foraging and feeding practices enable a more nutritious, diverse and nitrogen-rich mixture of grasses and forbs (broad-leafed vegetation) to grow.The enriched vegetation attracts an amazing array of wildlife who graze in their colonies.Black-tailed prairie dogs play an integral role in the prairie food chain; they are a critical food source for such animals as the endangered black-footed ferret, swift fox, coyotes, hawks, eagles and badgers.
11 Biodiversity and Survival More genetic diversity means the population has a greater chance of surviving environmental changes. (ie: global warming)Ex: Hemophilia
12 Biodiversity and Humans More organisms the more things for usFoodAntibioticsClothingShelterChemicals
13 Ecotourism – tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecologically unique areasHas become very popular lately
14 Sect. 2 ObjectivesDefine and give examples of endangered and threatened species.Describe several ways that species are being threatened with extinction globally.Explain which types of threats are having the largest impact on biodiversity.List areas of the world that have high levels of biodiversity and many threats to species.Compare the amount of biodiversity in the United States to that of the rest of the world.
15 All species are considered one of these: depending on their natural numbers ExtantThreatenedEndangeredExtinct
20 Species most at riskAnimals that are more likely to become extinct are those that:Have small populationsMigrateNeed large or special habitatsAre exploited by humansCurrently humans are the greatest cause of extinctions!
22 Species can be threatened by HumansHuntingLoss of habitat (75% of current extinctions)DeforestationDammingBurningGrowing citiesPollutionPoachingInvasive speciesNatural CausesInterbreedingNatural DisasterDisease
23 Exotic – not native to an area When brought to a new area exotic species can cause the extinction of other species they out competeEx: Fire AntHorny Toads (Desert Horned Lizard) eat antsFire ants (exotic species) kill horny toads.Horny toads are now threatened!
24 Generalist SpeciesSpecies with a broad niche, can survive in many different placesHUMANSOften are invasive species
25 Specialist SpeciesSpecies with a narrow niche. Only live in a small range of environmental factorsFewer if these because they can become extinct more readily
26 Critical AreasTropical Rain Forests – over half the worlds species live hereMost species have not been named, yetBut, lots of these are disappearingDue to habitat destruction by humans!Coral Reefs and Coastal areasIslands – why?
27 Biodiversity Hotspots – high number of endemic species but are threatened by humans
28 Madagascar Biodiversity Hotspot Endemic Species80% of plants91% of reptiles100% of lemurs (10% of worlds primate population)Only 18% of the original forests remain!!
29 Sect. 3 ObjectivesList and describe four types of efforts to save individual species.Explain the advantages of protecting entire ecosystems rather than individual species.Describe the main provisions of the Endangered Species Act.Discuss ways in which efforts to protect endangered species can lead to controversy.Describe three examples of worldwide cooperative efforts to prevent extinctions.
30 Ch. 10 EcologRead in your book, in Sect. 3, about the following ways to save species. In your Ecolog write a brief description of each!Captive-Breeding programsPreserving Genetic MaterialZoos, etc.Conservation StrategiesWrite a paragraph about why it is important to save species and the biodiversity around the world.