. –For Jews - city where King David ruled and where the great Temple had stood. – For Christians- city where Jesus had lived, preached, and been crucified. –For Muslims - where their leader, Mohammed, ascended into heaven Jerusalem - special city for three religions-
CRUSADES – The Background Full of people from all three religions who lived there in peace. Visitors came by the thousands from all over the western world to visit the holy places in Jerusalem. Suddenly, in 1071 AD, a group of Muslims called Seljuk Turks, stopped allowing Christian visitors to come into Jerusalem at all.
The Crusades Events leading to Crusade #1 –Pope Gregory VII planned to reunite Roman and Byzantine Churches by organizing a holy war from Spain to Asia. He would send the Byzantines an army of western knights, which he would lead himself –Gregory died before he could pull it off.
Peasants rally to call of “Peter the Hermit” recruited an undisciplined mob of peasants, including women and children Thought life would be better in Jerusalem –After all, how bad can the land of God be? Not this kind of hermit The “Other” Army
Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless set out for Jerusalem
We are all following Peter the Hermit. Next stop – Jerusalem. Anyone know how to get there? Can I bring my goat?
Peter and His Mob Byzantines hoped for a well-trained army
Byzantines were appalled by Peter's mob. Mobs steal everything not nailed down. Pent up peasant frustrations. Byzantium is a very rich place compared to what they are used to. Peter’s Band of Looters and Thieves
The End of Peter and Company Byzantines move them out of Constantinople as fast as possible. Eventually Peter and his followers get massacred in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey) by the Seljuk Turks
Crusading Nobles Meanwhile – Nobles gather for a coordinated effort to retake Jerusalem Conquer Muslims who had taken over parts of Byzantine Empire. Alexius allows crusaders to carve out principalities for themselves from Turkish occupied land Required each European lord to take an oath of loyalty to him upon their arrival
Crusading Nobles Next Phase of the Operation: Cross Asia Minor. Conquer Antioch and then take Jerusalem. Wholesale rape, pillage and slaughter ensues in the city. Read “The Capture of Jerusalem”
The Aftermath Eventually, most knights return home to Europe. –Few stay in the Middle East Knights bring back goods and ideas found in Middle East Jerusalem falls to Muslim forces again
Ideas and “Stuff” brought back from Crusades Arabic words Mathematics Scientific ideas Engineering and Architectural concepts Medical knowledge Geographical knowledge Goods from Asia and India –Silk, spices, cotton, pasta, Great desire to find ways to get to Asia
Effects of the Crusades on Europe Increased trade with the Middle East and Byzantine Empire Growth of money economy Increased power of the monarchs. Increased power of the Church Wider world view – new inventions / ideas brought back. Europeans want more stuff from Asia –Age of Exploration Begins