What is Science? Write 3 questions a biologist might ask about this picture
Science: Science deals only with phenomena that can be observed.
Goals of Science - To investigate and understand the natural world - To explain events in the natural world - To use those explanations to make useful predictions - Science is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
The Scientific Method Science and the scientific method have some built-in limitations because of the insistence on direct observation and testable hypotheses. This means that science cannot make judgments about values, ethics, or morality. Science can reveal how the world is, but not how it should be. It does not include values, feelings, or beliefs.
The Scientific Method The Scientific Method involves steps: Observation Question Hypothesis Experiment Record & Analyze Data/Results Conclusion Repeat Publish Results
The Scientific Method #1: Observation- You observe something in the material world, using your senses or machines which are basically extensions of those senses. Ex: _____________________________ AH—Look at this!
The Scientific Method #1: Observation- You observe something in the material world, using your senses or machines which are basically extensions of those senses. Ex: There is a spider on the yellow flower. AH—Look at this!
The Scientific Method #2: Question- You ask a question about what you observe. State the problem or question. Ex: Why is ____________________? or Why is ________________?
The Scientific Method #2: Question- You ask a question about what you observe. State the problem or question. Ex: Why is the spider on the flower? Or Why is the flower yellow?
The Scientific Method #3: Hypothesis- You predict what you think the answer to your question might be. Ex: The spider is ________________. The Flower is __________________.
The Scientific Method #3: Hypothesis- You predict what you think the answer to your question might be. Ex: The spider is eating something. The Flower is trying to blend in.
A hypothesis is a statement that might be true. It is NOT a question and it does NOT include prefaces like “I think” or “I believe.” It does NOT require an explanation, e.g. “… because…”
The Scientific Method #4: Method/Experiment - In experiments, scientists set up conditions in which hypotheses can be tested. Design the experiment with step by step procedures. The outcome must be measurable. (quantifiable)
Controlled Experiment Variables change & affect the outcome of the experiment Only one variable is tested Constant is something that does not change Controls are unchanged & used for comparison
2 TYPES OF VARIABLES Dependent variable – Variable in an experiment that the scientists want to observe. Independent variable - Variable in an experiment that a scientist changes on purpose.
Theory a scientific hypothesis that has survived extensive testing and is generally accepted.
The Scientific Method #5: Record & Analyze Data/Results- You repeat the experiment to confirm your results and then analyze the data using charts/graphs.
The Scientific Method #6: State Conclusion- You state whether your prediction (hypothesis) was confirmed or not and try to explain your results. #7: Repeat – Double check yourself!!! #8: Publish your Results – Share your work so other scientists can review, repeat, and verify your results
Scientific Method Do’s & Don’t’s Do have only one independent variable during an experiment. Do repeat the experiment more than once to verify your results. Do have more than one control, with each being identical. Do organize data. Do state facts from past experiences or observations on which you base your hypothesis. Do write down your hypothesis before beginning the project experimentation. Don't change your hypothesis even if experimentation does not support it. If time permits, repeat or redesign the experiment to confirm your results. Don't leave out experimental results that do not support your hypothesis.