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Canadian & World Issues Demographics.

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Presentation on theme: "Canadian & World Issues Demographics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Canadian & World Issues Demographics

2 1.Studying Population 2.Population Pyramids 3.Global Village

3 Studying Population Population Geography –The study of SPATIAL variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations over time. Demography –The study of human population dynamics. It looks at how populations change over time due to births, deaths, migration and ageing. Demographics –A term for population characteristics. Demographics include birth rate, death rate, immigration, age, income, sex, education, occupation, religion, nationality, …

4 Studying Population Population change over time will inevitably affect…. Political Systems Economics Social Structures Environments

5 Studying Population Source: United Nations Populations Division, World Population Prospects, The 2004 Revision, medium variant. Developing countries Billions Developed countries

6 Studying Population Factors that may lead to population increase include: –Food –Health –Economic Growth –Migration

7 Studying Population Growth Rate –the number of persons added to (or subtracted from) a population due to natural increase and net migration. Birth rate: number of live births per 1,000 population per year. Death rate: number of deaths per 1,000 population per year. Rate of Natural Increase –birth rate – death rate = rate of natural increase

8 Studying Population Factors that contribute to the decline in death rate include: –Better Nutrition –Better Access to Medical Care –Improved Sanitation –Better Immunization Net Migration = immigrants – emigrants

9 Studying Population Effects of Population Increase –Increased poverty –Resource depletion –Medicine shortages –Urban sprawl

10 Studying Population A specific pattern of population growth has occurred in many developed nations during the past 60 years. 1945 1965 19852005 2025 Births Baby Boom Generation X Baby Echo Generation Y

11 Studying Population Factors that may lead to population decline –Heavy Emigration –Disease –Famine –War –Sub-replacement Fertility a fertility rate that is not high enough to replace an area’s population. Sub-replacement fertility rate is 2.1 children per woman or higher.

12 Studying Population Population Decline in the past –The Black Death –Old World Diseases –Potato Famine Population Decline today –Sub-replacement Fertility Levels –Migration (to be discussed in the next lesson)

13 Why low sub-replacement fertility rate? –Urbanization –Contraception –Government Policies Exception: United States where natural increase rates have remained stable… And within the US, incredible regional variations Studying Population

14 Average Number of Children per Woman Source: PRB, 2005 World Population Data Sheet. Studying Population

15 Effects of Population Decline: –Deflation –Rise in the standard of living –Population aging –Small impact on the environment –Political power?

16 Females Source: United Nations Populations Division, World Population Prospects, The 2004 Revision. Ag e Males Millions In the developed countries, there are fewer and fewer young people and more and more elderly. Studying Population

17 Source: United Nations Populations Division, World Population Prospects, The 2004 Revision. Females Ag e Males Millions The young population of the developing countries translates to great growth potential. Studying Population

18 Europe is the only world region projected to decline in population by 2050. Millions Studying Population

19 Population Pyramids A population pyramid is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups (also called cohorts). A great deal of information about the population broken down by age and sex can be read from a population pyramid, and this can shed light on the extent of its development. –Birth rate trends –Death rate trends –Number of economic dependents ( 65)

20 Population Pyramids Three basic shapes of population pyramids.

21 Population Pyramids – CAN 1961 Depression Baby Boom Aging Population

22 Population Pyramids – CAN 2006

23 Population Pyramids – US 1990

24 Population Pyramids – US 2000

25 Population Pyramids – US 2025

26 Population Pyramids – US 2050

27 Population Pyramids – US 2100

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