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1 Human Populations. 2 History of Human Population Early Hunter Gatherers Nomadic, With a Strong Sense of the Earth Practiced Intentional Birth Control.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Human Populations. 2 History of Human Population Early Hunter Gatherers Nomadic, With a Strong Sense of the Earth Practiced Intentional Birth Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Human Populations

2 2 History of Human Population Early Hunter Gatherers Nomadic, With a Strong Sense of the Earth Practiced Intentional Birth Control Rise of Agriculture Necessary for Survival Animals became extinct via hunting and altered habitat Cultivation of own food

3 3 History of Human Population Cont… Agriculture Gives Rise to Cities Food Produced in Country, Consumed in City Less productive soil Waste of Populations Concentrated in Cities Population Control in Medieval Societies Disease Famine Wars

4 4 History of Human Population Cont.. Industrialization Early Phases: Child labor Cheap source of income and cheap labor Exponential growth of populations By 1900s, Birth Rate in Industrialized World Dropped Why?

5 5 Human Population Growth

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7 7

8 8 Current World Population Global population ? The global population grows by:  Nearly 2.3 persons per seconds  Nearly 8,343 persons per hour  Over 200,234 persons per day  Over 73 million persons per year

9 9 Rate of Global Population Change use: International Data Base, CBR (crude birth rate) = # births / 1000 population 1990: 24now: 20.6 CDR (crude death rate) = # deaths / 1000 population 1990: 9now: 8.8 Growth Rate = (b + i) – (d + e) 1990: 1.5%now: 1.19%  growth rates have come down

10 10 Crude Birth Rates

11 11 Crude Death Rates

12 12 Doubling Time Doubling Time of a population:  70/annual percentage growth rate. Doubling time for the Human Population  800 million in 1700  1.6 billion in 1900  3.2 billion in 1965  6.4 billion in 2005 J shaped curve

13 13

14 14 LIMITS TO GROWTH Thomas Malthus-excess population growth is the cause of many social and environmental problems  Disease, famine and population control is only way to stabilize Karl Marx- oppression and exploitation are the real causes of poverty and environmental degradation  Population growth is a symptom or result of other problems, not the source

15 15 HUMAN DEMOGRAPHY Demography - vital statistics about people 2 demographic worlds  First is poor, young, and rapidly growing. - Less-developed countries contain 80% of world population  Second is wealthy, old, and mostly shrinking. - Western Europe, Japan.

16 16 Human Population Density

17 17 Factors affecting birth rates and fertility rates Age of woman at time of marriage Availability and affordability of birth control and abortion Children needed in the workforce Costs of raising and educating children Culture, religion, tradition Government programs Infant mortality

18 18 Factors affecting death rates Availability and affordability of health care, food and better nutrition Safer water supplies Improvements in sanitation and pollution control Improvements in medical and public health

19 19 Indicators of overall health of people in a country Life expectancy Infant mortality rate-number of babies out of every 1000 born who die before age 1

20 20 Human Population Dynamics 3 sources of change in population size — Migration Fertility Mortality

21 21 Curbing Population Growth Family Planning  Reduce births and abortions - reduces children's social services needs - reduces risk of childbearing deaths  Effectiveness depends on program design and funding

22 22 Rewards and Penalties to Reduce Births What might work:  Encourage people to have fewer children  Reinforce existing customs and trends toward smaller families  Don’t penalize for already existing larger families  Increase poor family’s economic status

23 23 Case Study-India Family planning efforts began in 1952; fertility rate declined from 5.3 to 3.4 but population growth is still exponential Disappointing results due to:  poor planning  bureaucratic inefficiency  low status of women  extreme poverty  lack of administrative & financial support

24 24 Curbing Population Growth Provide economic incentives for having less children Empower and educate women  Access to education and paying jobs outside home  Society doesn’t suppress women’s rights Government family planning services Reduce poverty and economic development

25 25 Case Study-China Family planning efforts began in 1970 Population control program is extensive, intrusive and strict:  postpone childbearing  only one child/family -->benefits - Free education and health care - Increased personal and family incomes - Preferential housing and retirement income  effective because China is dictatorship; limited resources would have mean disaster

26 26 Age Structure Bar graph that shows the age and gender composition of a region horizontal axis: gender  male: left-handfemale: right-hand  absolute number of people or % vertical axis: age  5-year or 10-year age groups

27 27 Age Structure

28 28 4 Stages of the Demographic Transition Birth rates, death rates and growth rates change through time as societies change:  modernize, urbanize  gain access to technology

29 29 Stage 1: Pre-Industrial High birth rates, high (at time erratic) death rates, low growth rates Stage for much of human history, traditional societies Living conditions severe

30 30 Stage 2: Transitional High birth rates, declining death rates, rising growth rates Improvements in sanitation (water) and medicine Ex. Europe at the start of Industrial Revolution  developing countries since the 50s/60s  much of Africa today, some countries of Asia (Afghanistan, Nepal, etc.)

31 31 Stage 3: Industrial Continued decline of death rates, declining birth rates, growth rates decline from high to lower levels  Lower death rate, in particular infant mortality rates Economic change: urbanization (incentive to have fewer children)  Better jobs  Education for women Mexico today

32 32 Stage 4 Post-Industrial Stage 4: birth rates are less than mortality rates Zero population growth or declining population growth Standard of living is high Ex. Japan, many European countries

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