Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenme nt Philosophers. The Enlightenment European movement (1600-1700’s) in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the."— Presentation transcript:
The Enlightenment European movement (1600-1700’s) in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society. – AKA “The Age of Reason” Characteristics: – Applied reason to the human world (governments, laws, economies) not just the natural world (science). – Led to religious tolerance – Led to democratic revolutions
Thomas Hobbes – 1588-1679 – English philosopher – Social Contract Lived through the English Civil War and thought it showed how terrible man could be Said people must have a strong king to control their worst instincts and that people must give that king certain freedoms in exchange for order. He called this exchange of freedom for order a SOCIAL CONTRACT
Thomas Hobbes Cont. Beliefs: – Natural state of man is war/competition, not cooperation – Strong central government needed to keep order Supported Absolute Monarchy (rule of a strong king/queen) – Supported a social contract (Agreement between the government and the governed)
John Locke Famous Work: Two Treatises on Government Beliefs: – Government’s power comes from the people. – Government’s job is to protect people and their rights. Did NOT support Absolute Monarchy – People are born free and equal with three Natural Rights: Life Liberty Property – Greatly inspired Thomas Jefferson’s writing of the Declaration of Independence.
Baron de Montesquieu Famous Work: The Spirit of Laws Beliefs: – Government should include separation of powers: Legislative Branch – Makes laws Executive Branch – Enforces laws Judicial Branch – Interprets laws
Jean Jacques Rousseau Famous Work: The Social Contract Beliefs: – Government is a contract between people and their rulers. – Rulers are elected by the people, and all people are equal. – People must agree to give government some authority in exchange for protection of their rights.
Voltaire Famous Work: Candide Beliefs: – Religious tolerance and freedom of religion – 1 st Amendment to U.S. Constitution – Separation of church and state (government) – U.S. Constitution – Freedom of speech - 1 st Amendment to U.S. Constitution
The Enlightenment Philosophies of the enlightenment fueled revolutions in the Americas and France