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Section Four The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions

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1 Section Four The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions
Prologue Section Four The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions

2 Enlightenment Enlightenment- an intellectual movement during the 17th and 18th centuries that attempted to apply the principles of reason and methods of science to all aspects of society.

3 Great Enlightenment Thinkers
Thomas Hobbes English philosopher Book Leviathan(1651)- “People are by nature selfish and ambitious.” Monarchy was needed to control selfish ambitions. In a “social contract”, people submitted to an authoritarian ruler to prevent disorder. Social Contract- agreement among members of society.

4 Great Enlightenment Thinkers
2. John Locke English philosopher Book, Two Treatises of Government, (1690) “English people were justified in overthrowing King James II.” All human beings have the right to Life, Liberty, and Property. These are “Natural Rights”, given by God. Governments exist primarily to protect these rights. People have an absolute right to rebel against governments that violate or fail to protect these rights. Government’s power comes from the people, not from God.

5 Great Enlightenment Thinkers
3. Voltaire French Historian Argued in favor of tolerance, freedom of religion, and free speech He criticized the French government (an absolute monarchy) and Christianity.

6 Great Enlightenment Thinkers
4. Rousseau Wrote, The Social Contract,(1762). He advocated democracy in this work. He considered a social contract to be an agreement between free individuals to create a government that would respond to the peoples’ will. Only government “by the consent of the governed” was proper government.

7 Great Enlightenment Thinkers
5. Montesquieu French philosopher Wrote, Spirit of the Laws, (1748), “any person or group of people in power will try to increase its power”. He agreed with Aristotle and searched for a way to control government. Separation of Powers- dividing government into three separate branches. Legislature to make laws Executive to enforce laws Judicial to interpret laws

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