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Vocab review Monomer= generic name for a building block unit

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1 Vocab review Monomer= generic name for a building block unit eg: a monosaccharide is a monomer of a polysaccharide Polymer= generic name for 3 or more monomers bonded together eg= three or more monosaccharides bonded together are a polymer, specifically a polysaccharide Dehydration synthesis= building bigger molecules by taking water out Degradation hydrolysis= breaking up big molecules into smaller ones by putting water in

2 long term energy storage
Lipids long term energy storage concentrated energy

3 Lipids Lipids are composed of C, H, O 3 Classes: Do not form polymers
Defining characteristic: long hydrocarbon chains (H-C) or rings 3 Classes: fats phospholipids steroids Do not form polymers big molecules made of smaller subunits not a continuing chain Made of same elements as carbohydrates but very different structure/ proportions & therefore very different biological properties

4 Fats (triglycerides and fatty acids)
Structure: glycerol 3 fatty acids enzyme Look at structure… What makes them hydrophobic? Note functional group = carboxyl H2O dehydration synthesis

5 Fats have functions! Long HC chain Function: polar or non-polar?
hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Function: energy storage cushion organs insulates body think whale blubber! What happens when you add oil to water Why is there a lot of energy stored in fats? • big molecule • lots of bonds of stored energy So why are we attracted to eating fat? Think about our ancestors on the Serengeti Plain & during the Ice Age. Was eating fat an advantage?

6 Saturated fats All C bonded to H No C=C double bonds
long, straight chain most animal fats solid at room temp. Mostly animal fats

7 Unsaturated fats C=C double bonds in the fatty acids plant & fish fats
vegetable oils liquid at room temperature the kinks made by double bonded C prevent the molecules from packing tightly together Mostly plant lipids Think about “natural” peanut butter: Lots of unsaturated fats Oil separates out Companies want to make their product easier to use: Stop the oil from separating Keep oil solid at room temp. Hydrogenate it = chemically alter to saturate it Affect nutrition?

8 Saturated vs. unsaturated

9 Phospholipids Structure: glycerol + 2 fatty acids + PO43-

10 Phospholipids fatty acid tails = PO43- head = split “personality”
hydrophobic hydrophilic

11 Phospholipids in water
Hydrophilic heads “attract” to H2O Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O can self-assemble into “bubbles” or bilayers water bilayer water

12 Why is this important? Phospholipids create a barrier in water
define outside vs. inside they make cell membranes!

13 Steroids Structure: 4 fused C rings + functional groups + HC tail
different steroids created by attaching different functional groups to rings different structure creates different function cholesterol

14 Cholesterol Important cell component animal cell membranes
precursor of all other steroids including vertebrate sex hormones

15 Cholesterol helps keep cell membranes fluid & flexible
Important component of cell membrane helps keep cell membranes fluid & flexible


17 Nucleic acids Monomers= nucleotides
Polymers= nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, ATP) nucleotide

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