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OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Carbohydrates energy molecules.

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Presentation on theme: "OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Carbohydrates energy molecules."— Presentation transcript:


2 OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Carbohydrates energy molecules

3 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo - hydr - ate CH 2 O (CH 2 O) x C 6 H 12 O 6 Function: energy u energy storage raw materials u structural materials Monomer: sugars ex: sugars, starches, cellulose sugar C 6 H 12 O 6 (CH 2 O) x

4 Simple & complex sugars Monosaccharides simple 1 monomer sugars glucose Disaccharides 2 monomers sucrose Polysaccharides large polymers starch OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Glucose

5 Building sugars Dehydration synthesis glycosidic linkage | glucose | glucose monosaccharidesdisaccharide | maltose H2OH2O

6 Polysaccharides Polymers of sugars costs little energy to build easily reversible = release energy Function: energy storage starch (plants) glycogen (animals) in liver & muscles structure cellulose (plants) chitin (arthropods & fungi)

7 Linear vs. branched polysaccharides starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage slow release fast release

8 Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest enzyme cellulose hard to digest

9 Cellulose Most abundant organic compound on Earth herbivores have evolved a mechanism to digest cellulose most carnivores have not that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients cellulose = undigestible roughage But it tastes like hay! Who can live on this stuff?!

10 Helpful bacteria  How can herbivores digest cellulose so well?  BACTERIA live in their digestive systems & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals Ruminants

11 Regents Biology Lipids long term energy storage concentrated energy

12 Lipids  Lipids are composed of C, H, O  long hydrocarbon chains (H-C)  “Family groups”  fats  phospholipids  steroids  Do not form polymers  big molecules made of smaller subunits  not a continuing chain

13 Fats  Structure:  glycerol (3C alcohol) + fatty acid  fatty acid = long HC “tail” with carboxyl (COOH) group “head” dehydration synthesis H2OH2O enzyme

14 Building Fats  Triacylglycerol  3 fatty acids linked to glycerol  ester linkage = between OH & COOH hydroxylcarboxyl

15 Dehydration synthesis dehydration synthesis H2OH2OH2OH2OH2OH2OH2OH2O enzyme

16 Fats store energy  Long HC chain  polar or non-polar?  hydrophilic or hydrophobic?  Function:  energy storage  concentrated  all H-C!  2x carbohydrates  cushion organs  insulates body  think whale blubber! Why do humans like fatty foods?

17 Saturated fats  All C bonded to H  No C=C double bonds  long, straight chain  most animal fats  solid at room temp.  contributes to cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis) = plaque deposits

18 Unsaturated fats  C=C double bonds in the fatty acids  plant & fish fats  vegetable oils  liquid at room temperature  the kinks made by double bonded C prevent the molecules from packing tightly together mono-unsaturated? poly-unsaturated?

19 Phospholipids  Structure:  glycerol + 2 fatty acids + PO 4  PO 4 = negatively charged It’s just like a tardigrade… A head at one end & a tail at the other!

20 Phospholipids  Hydrophobic or hydrophilic?  fatty acid tails =  PO 4 head =  split “personality” interaction with H 2 O is complex & very important! “repelled by water” “attracted to water” Come here, No, go away! hydrophobic hydrophillic

21 Phospholipids in water  Hydrophilic heads “attracted” to H 2 O  Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H 2 O  can self-assemble into “bubbles”  bubble = “micelle”  can also form a phospholipid bilayer  early evolutionary stage of cell? bilayer water

22 Why is this important?  Phospholipids create a barrier in water  define outside vs. inside  they make cell membranes! Tell them about soap!

23 Steroids  Structure:  4 fused C rings + ??  different steroids created by attaching different functional groups to rings  different structure creates different function  examples: cholesterol, sex hormones cholesterol

24 Cholesterol helps keep cell membranes fluid & flexible Important component of cell membrane

25 Regents Biology Let’s build some Lipids!

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