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AP Biology Lipids: Fats & Oils AP Biology 2006-2007 Lipids energy storage.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Lipids: Fats & Oils AP Biology 2006-2007 Lipids energy storage."— Presentation transcript:


2 AP Biology Lipids: Fats & Oils

3 AP Biology 2006-2007 Lipids energy storage

4 AP Biology Lipids  Lipids are composed of C, H, O  long hydrocarbon chain  Diverse group  fats  phospholipids  steroids  Do not form polymers  big molecules made of smaller subunits  not a continuing chain fat

5 AP Biology Fat subunits  Structure:  glycerol (3C alcohol) + fatty acid dehydration synthesis  fatty acid = long HC “tail” with COOH group at “head” enzyme

6 AP Biology Building Fats  Triacylglycerol  3 fatty acids linked to glycerol  ester linkage = between OH & COOH

7 AP Biology Dehydration synthesis enzyme dehydration synthesis

8 AP Biology Fats store energy  Long HC chain  polar or non-polar?  hydrophilic or hydrophobic?  Function:  energy storage  very rich  2x carbohydrates  cushion organs  insulates body  think whale blubber! Why do humans like fatty foods?

9 AP Biology Saturated fats  All C bonded to H  No C=C double bonds  long, straight chain  most animal fats  solid at room temp.  contributes to cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis) = plaque deposits

10 AP Biology Unsaturated fats  C=C double bonds in the fatty acids  plant & fish fats  vegetable oils  liquid at room temperature  the kinks made by double bonded C prevent the molecules from packing tightly together mono-unsaturated? poly-unsaturated?

11 AP Biology Saturated vs. unsaturated saturatedunsaturated

12 AP Biology Triglyceride Animations  Structure of Triglycerides Animation Structure of Triglycerides Animation  Triglycerides in the Body Animation Triglycerides in the Body Animation

13 AP Biology Phospholipids  Structure:  glycerol + 2 fatty acids + PO 4  PO 4 negatively charged It’s just like a penguin… A head at one end & a tail at the other!

14 AP Biology Phospholipids in water  Hydrophilic heads attracted to H 2 O  Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H 2 O  can self-assemble into “bubbles”  bubble = “micelle”  can also form bilayer  early evolutionary stage of cell? bilayer

15 AP Biology Why is this important?  Phospholipids create a barrier in water  define outside vs. inside  cell membranes

16 AP Biology Phospholipids & cells  Phospholipids of cell membrane  double layer = bilayer  hydrophilic heads on outside  in contact with aqueous solution outside of cell and inside of cell  hydrophobic tails on inside  form core  forms barrier between cell & external environment Tell them about soap!

17 AP Biology Steroids  ex: cholesterol, sex hormones  4 fused C rings  different steroids created by attaching different functional groups to rings cholesterol

18 AP Biology Cholesterol  Important cell component  animal cell membranes  precursor of all other steroids  including vertebrate sex hormones  high levels in blood may contribute to cardiovascular disease

19 AP Biology Cholesterol helps keep cell membranes fluid & flexible Important component of cell membrane

20 AP Biology From Cholesterol  Sex Hormones  What a big difference a few atoms can make!

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