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 Were you surprised by the verdict of the trial? Explain why or why not.

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Presentation on theme: " Were you surprised by the verdict of the trial? Explain why or why not."— Presentation transcript:

1  Were you surprised by the verdict of the trial? Explain why or why not.

2  Rhetoric: the art of effectively communicating ideas.  Persuasive Rhetoric: reasoned arguments in favor or against particular beliefs or courses of action.

3  Engage both the mind and the heart of the audience  Writer needs to show that his or her position has a firm moral basis.  Example: o Two wrongs do not make a right. Why then would people advocate for the death penalty? If a society is trying to show that murdering others is wrong, then murdering one that commits a crime sets a lousy example.  What is the moral basis in the above argument ?

4  Clearly state the issue and a position  Supports the position with facts and reason  Take opposing views into account  Use effective language  Conclude by summing up reasons or calling for action

5 1. Logical Appeals (Logos) 2. Emotional Appeals (Pathos) 3. Ethical Appeals (Ethos)

6  Provide rational arguments to support writers’ claims.  This appeal can be made in two different ways: o Deductively: Writer begins with a generalization and then proceeds to give examples and facts that support this claim. General to specific o Inductively: Writer begins with examples and facts and the reader draws conclusions from them. Specific to general

7  Appeals to emotion are based on specific examples of suffering or potential threats.  Often include “loaded language”, which is language that is rich with connotations and vivid images.

8  Based on credibility and values.  Call forth the audience’s sense of right, justice, and virtue.

9 1. Elevated Language 2. Rhetorical Questions 3. Repetition

10  Formal words and phrases can lend a serious tone to a discussion.  Example: o “The powerful empire of nature is no longer surrounded by prejudice, fanaticism, superstition, and lies. The flame of truth has dispersed all the clouds of folly and usurpation.” – Olympe de Gouges from “Declaration of the Rights of Woman”

11  These are questions that do not require answers.  Writers pose rhetorical questions to show that their arguments make the answers obvious.  Example: o “Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?” – Patrick Henry

12  Repeating a point or word that tells the audience that it is especially important.  Parallelism is another form of repetition.  Example of parallelism: o “We hold these truths to be self-evident: --That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” –from “Declaration of Independence

13 

14 1. Identify the problem that is addressed and the solution that is proposed. 2. Analyze Atticus’ presentation of his argument. What rhetorical tools does he use? Why does he use them? 3. Analyze the evidence used to support the argument. What facts support Atticus’ opinion? 4. Evaluate the credibility of Atticus. What motivations might lie behind his speech ?

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