LOGOS (Logical Appeals) convince audience using rational arguments supported with objective evidence or reasonable assumptions Example: Slavery should be abolished because “all men are created equal” (reasonable assumption) and African people have the same brain capacity as European people (evidence).
PATHOS (Emotional Appeals) convince audience using specific examples of emotions such as happiness or suffering, or potential threats that cause fear –fear, pity, lust, happiness, worth, belonging, patriotism Example: Slavery should be abolished because no man should have to feel the fear that he is ruled entirely by another man— whipped at a whim or seeing his children ripped from his eyes and sold like cattle. (pity/outrage/disgust)
ETHOS (Ethical Appeals) Convince the audience by the authority of a person or a group (credibility); relies on shared moral values and call forth the audience’s sense of right, justice, and virtue Example: Slavery should be abolished because all of the great men of our time (authority) realize the moral irresponsibility of attempting to justify that it is acceptable to treat another human being in a fashion different from how we would treat our brother (moral value).
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE (Englishy Terms) Language that communicates ideas beyond the literal meaning of words "Mama said life was LIKE a box of chocolate, you never know what you're gonna get!" Jumping for joy! (Think Beauty and the Beast!) I’m so hungry, I could eat a horse!
Methods of Rhetoric Elevated Language—develop serious tone and help ethical appeals (credibility) Rhetorical Question—question where no answer is expected; posed to show arguments make the answer obvious
Repetition—repeating a point tells the audience what is important Parallelism—ideas expressed in the same way to emphasize importance Allusion: indirect reference to a person, place, event, or literary work with which the author believes the reader will be familiar so that a point can be made