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Chapter 18 Classification.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Classification."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Classification

2 Why Classify? In order to name and group organisms in a logical manner
Taxonomy- classifying organisms and assigning each a name

3 Assigning Scientific Names
Early Efforts- described physical characteristics Binomial Nomenclature- (Carolus Linnaeus) two word naming system, the genus and species Always typed in italics Underlined when written

4 Ursus maritimus Ursus arctos When written or typed the genus is always capitalized and the species is not

5 Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox Abert squirrel Coral snake Sea star KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos

6 Linnaeus’s System (7 levels)
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

7 Evolutionary Classification
Phylogeny- study of evolutionary relationships among organisms Biologists classify organisms by grouping them according to evolutionary descent, not physical characterists.

8 Cladograms Used derived characteristics to show evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms

9 Similarities in DNA/RNA


11 Molecular Clock

Conical Shells Appendages Crustaceans Gastropod Crab Barnacle Limpet Crab Barnacle Limpet Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming larva CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES CLADOGRAM

13 Kingdoms and Domains Kingdoms Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista
Archaebacteria Eubacteria Domains Eukarya Archaea Bacteria

14 Classification of Living Things
Kingdoms and Domains Classification of Living Things DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell walls with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls without peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Fungi Eukaryote Cell walls of chitin Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Eukarya Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Animalia Eukaryote No cell walls or chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals

Kingdoms Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia DOMAIN BACTERIA

16 3 Domain System

17 Archaea vs Bacteria


19 Endosymbiotic Theory

20 Dichotomus Key A series of paired statements that describe characteristics of different organisms.

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