2 Binomial Nomenclature Grizzly bearUrsus arctosPolar bearUrsus maritimusGiant pandaAiluropoda melanoleucaDo Ursus arctos and Ursus maritimus belong to the same species? To the same genus?
3 Linnaeus’s classification system KingdomPhylum / DivisionClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
4 Binomial Nomenclature Grizzly bearUrsus arctosPolar bearUrsus maritimusGiant pandaAiluropoda melanoleucaDo Ursus arctos and Ursus maritimus belong to the same species? To the same genus?
5 Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification
6 Classifying organisms using dichotomous keys (field guide) A device that can be used to easily identify an unknown organism. consists of a series of two part statements (describe characteristic of organisms). At each step the user is presented with two choices. As the user makes a choice about a particular characteristic of an organism they are led to a new branch of the key. Eventually the user will be led to the name of the organism that they are trying to identify.
7 Constructing Dichotomous Keys Take a look at the group of objects and separate them into two groups based on a single distinguishing characteristic.Then continue to separate each of the groups until each object has its own separate set of characteristics.
10 CladogramClassification based on phylogenyOrganisms share traitsHave recent common ancestorShare Evolutionary historyClassification based onvisible similaritiesCladogram is a diagram that shows evolutionary relationship among group of organisms.Cladistic analysis identifies and considers only those characteristics of organism that are evolutionary innovation-new characters that arise as lineage evolve over time.Characteristics that appear in recent part of lineage but not in its older members are called derived characteristics. They are used to construct cladogram.
14 Classification of living things DomainBacteriaArchaeaEukaryaKingdomEubacteriaArchaebacteriaProtistaFungiPlantaeAnimaliaCell typeprokaryoteEukaryoteCell wallStructureCell with peptidoglycanCell without peptidoglycanCell wall of cellulose in some, some have chloroplastCell wall of chitinCell wall of cellulose, chloroplastNo cell wall or chloroplastNumber of cellsUnicellularMost unicellular. Some multicellularMost multicellular. Some unicellularMulticellularMode of nutritionAutotroph or HeterotrophHeterotrophAutotrophExampleStreptococcus E. ColiCyanobacteria(blue green algae)ExtremeophilesMethanogens, HalophilesProtozoa, Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelpMushroom, yeastsMosses, Ferns, flowering plantsSponges, worms, insects, fish, mammals
16 ARCHAEA-Archaebacteria ProkaryoticUnicellularCell wall without peptidoglycanAutotroph/HeterotrophMost live in very harsh climatesand extreme environments - extremophilesE.g. Methanogens,Halophiles,Thermoacidophiles
17 EUKARYOTA-Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular, some are multicellular Autotroph/HeterotrophSome have cell wall with celluloseSome have chloroplastE.g.Amoeba, Paramecium, Slime mold
18 EUKARYOTA-Fungi Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotroph Cell wall of chitinMycelium : a mass of hyphae, No root, stem and leafReproduce by forming sporesNo chlorophyllSaprophytic or parasiticE.g.Mushroom, Yeast
19 EUKARYOTA-Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular Autotroph Chloroplast Cell wall of celluloseCan be divided into two groups:Non-flowering plants (e.g. algae, moss, fern, gymnospermsFlowering plants (e.g. angiosperms)
20 EUKARYOTA-Animalia Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotroph No Cell wall, No chloroplastDivided into two groupsaccording to the presence or absence of backbone:Invertebrates : without backboneVertebrates : with backbone