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Presentation on theme: "Classification."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification

2 Binomial Nomenclature
Grizzly bear Ursus arctos Polar bear Ursus maritimus Giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Do Ursus arctos and Ursus maritimus belong to the same species? To the same genus?

3 Linnaeus’s classification system
Kingdom Phylum / Division Class Order Family Genus Species

4 Binomial Nomenclature
Grizzly bear Ursus arctos Polar bear Ursus maritimus Giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Do Ursus arctos and Ursus maritimus belong to the same species? To the same genus?

5 Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification

6 Classifying organisms using dichotomous keys (field guide)
A device that can be used to easily identify an unknown organism.  consists of a series of two part statements (describe characteristic of organisms).  At each step the user is presented with two choices.  As the user makes a choice about a particular characteristic of an organism they are led to a new branch of the key.  Eventually the user will be led to the name of the organism that they are trying to identify.

7 Constructing Dichotomous Keys
Take a look at the group of objects and separate them into two groups based on a single distinguishing characteristic. Then continue to separate each of the groups until each object has its own separate set of characteristics.  



10 Cladogram Classification based on phylogeny Organisms share traits Have recent common ancestor Share Evolutionary history Classification based on visible similarities Cladogram is a diagram that shows evolutionary relationship among group of organisms. Cladistic analysis identifies and considers only those characteristics of organism that are evolutionary innovation-new characters that arise as lineage evolve over time. Characteristics that appear in recent part of lineage but not in its older members are called derived characteristics. They are used to construct cladogram.

11 Changing number of kingdoms

12 Six Kingdom Classification

13 BACTERIA ARCHAEA EUKARYOTA Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi
Plantae Animalia

14 Classification of living things
Domain Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Kingdom Eubacteria Archae bacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Cell type prokaryote Eukaryote Cell wall Structure Cell with peptidoglycan Cell without peptidoglycan Cell wall of cellulose in some, some have chloroplast Cell wall of chitin Cell wall of cellulose, chloroplast No cell wall or chloroplast Number of cells Unicellular Most unicellular. Some multicellular Most multicellular. Some unicellular Multicellular Mode of nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph Heterotroph Autotroph Example Streptococcus E. Coli Cyanobacteria(blue green algae) Extremeophiles Methanogens, Halophiles Protozoa, Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Mushroom, yeasts Mosses, Ferns, flowering plants Sponges, worms, insects, fish, mammals

15 BACTERIA-Eubacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular
Cell wall with peptidoglycan Ecologically diverse Autotroph / Heterotroph E.g.Streptococcus, E.coli, Cyanobacteria

16 ARCHAEA-Archaebacteria
Prokaryotic Unicellular Cell wall without peptidoglycan Autotroph/Heterotroph Most live in very harsh climates and extreme environments - extremophiles E.g. Methanogens,Halophiles,Thermoacidophiles

17 EUKARYOTA-Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular, some are multicellular
Autotroph/Heterotroph Some have cell wall with cellulose Some have chloroplast E.g.Amoeba, Paramecium, Slime mold

18 EUKARYOTA-Fungi Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotroph
Cell wall of chitin Mycelium : a mass of hyphae, No root, stem and leaf Reproduce by forming spores No chlorophyll Saprophytic or parasitic E.g.Mushroom, Yeast

19 EUKARYOTA-Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular Autotroph Chloroplast
Cell wall of cellulose Can be divided into two groups: Non-flowering plants (e.g. algae, moss, fern, gymnosperms Flowering plants (e.g. angiosperms)

20 EUKARYOTA-Animalia Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotroph
No Cell wall, No chloroplast Divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of backbone: Invertebrates : without backbone Vertebrates : with backbone

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