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Alan D. Morales, M.Ed., ATC/L

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1 Alan D. Morales, M.Ed., ATC/L
Classification Alan D. Morales, M.Ed., ATC/L

2 Why do we classify? To organize organisms into groups that have biological meaning Taxonomy-the study that classify organisms & assign each organism a universally accepted name. Uses Greek & Latin language

3 Why do they uses common names?
Common names was confusing. Same organism may have different names Puma, cougar, panther, mountain lion Different species may shared single common name Buzzard: US-Vulture; UK-Hawk

4 How does an organism get it assigned scientific name?
Binomial Nomenclature Created by Carolus Linnaeus Two-part naming system Always written in italics 1st word is capitalized and 2nd word is lowercased 1st word-the genus 2nd word-the species (refers to important trait of organism or where it lives) Example: Grizzly Bear- Ursus arctos

5 Linnaeus’s System of Classification
7 Taxonomic Categories Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Sam Gave Fred One Copper Padlock Key. Do Activity


7 Modern Evolutionary Classification
Traditional classification problem: Classifying organisms with similar body structure or important traits Evolution Classification Strategy of grouping organism together based on evolutionary history

8 Cladistic analysis-identifies & considers only those characteristics of organisms that are evolutionary innovation Derived characters-characteristics that recently appeared in lineage not in older members Cladogram-a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationship among a group of organisms. Do Lab

9 Cladogram is similar to a family tree in that it shows relationships common among relative organisms.

10 Classification Tools DNA & RNA Molecular Clock
Scientist examine DNA & RNA to help determine classification of organism Example: Amer. vulture, African vulture, & Stork Molecular Clock Used to mark evolutionary change in organism by comparing the DNA

11 Kingdom & Domains Early Tree of Life were misguided assumptions
Linnaeus Taxonomy did not adequately represent the full diversity. 6 Kingdom System of Classification Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia

12 Domain System Developed with uses of comparative studies on RNA & molecular clock Larger than a Kingdom System Bacteria Eubacteria Archaea Archaebacteria Eukarya Protista, Fungi, Plantae, & Animalia Revisit Saying Activity

13 Classification of Living Things
Domain Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Kingdom Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Cell Type Prokaryote Eukaryote Cell Structure Cell wall w/ peptidoglycan Cell wall w/o peptidoglycan Cell wall of cellulose in some; some have chloroplast Cell wall of chitin Cell wall of cellulose; chloroplast No cell wall or chloroplast # of Cells Unicellular Most unicellular; some multicellular Most multicellular; some Unicellular Multicellular Mode of Nutrition Autotroph or Hetertroph Hetertroph Autotroph Examples Streptococcus Halophiles Slime molds, giant kelp Mushroom, yeast Mosses, ferns, plants Sponges, insects, fishes, mammals

14 The End

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