2 Mandate of HeavenMandate of Heaven – belief that rulers were in charge because the gods had given them the right to ruleIt was not permanent!What could cause someone to lose Mandate of Heaven?
3 Dynastic Cycle Rulers in charge because gods favored them If rulers abused power or ignored their people, they lose Mandate of HeavenNew rulers would overthrow them
4 Period of Warring States From 475 to 221 BC, no stable government in ChinaWarlords fought each other for controlVery bloody and chaoticWhat could bring an end to this violence?475 – 221 BC
5 Qin DynastyPeriod of Warring States ends because of strong leader – Shi HuangdiShi Huangdi conquered all of the warring states, made into one united empireForced nobles to live in capital so he could keep an eye on them221 – 206 BC
6 Legalism – Shi Huangdi Philosophy of Qin Dynasty was Legalism Legalism – incredibly strict philosophy that keeps order through strict laws and stricter punishments“The nature of man is evil. His goodness is acquired.”“The ruler alone possesses power, wielding it like lightning or thunder.”Goal of Legalism was to “strengthen the tree and weaken the branches” – what does this mean?
7 AccomplishmentsGreat Wall of China – Shi Huangdi ordered a massive wall built to keep out invadersMost of the workers on it were being punished for crimes. Working on the Great Wall was basically a death sentenceTerra Cotta Army – to protect his tomb, Shi Huangdi ordered 8,000 statue soldiers to be built. He believed he was taking them into the afterlife with him.
8 Han DynastyPeople angry with harsh treatment of Qin Dynasty, revolted in 206 BCHan Dynasty takes overRuled their empire using ConfucianismCivil service exams – tests people had to take before they were given government jobsHan Dynasty built roads and canals to unite their empireExpanded their territory – known as expansionismLasts for 400 years – collapses for similar reasons as the Roman EmpireHeavy taxesOver-expansion – couldn’t maintain or protect landsLousy rulers206 BC – 220 AD
9 Confucianism Main philosophy of Han Dynasty Confucianism founded by ConfuciusA teacher who believed that when people understood their place in society, harmony was achievedFilial Piety – respect for elders (#1 priority of Confucianism)Encouraged education, especially for rulers
10 Daoism/Taoism Another Chinese philosophy Believed people were naturally good, and rules and order are what mess them upGovernment shouldn’t try to control people, but let them do their own thing