Genre Text I. Short Stories Elements A. Setting 1. Time and place of story 2. Physical surroundings a. ideas, customs, values, and beliefs B. Characters 1. Actors in the story plot a. people, animals, or whatever writer chooses 2. Protagonist – main character 3. Antagonist – person in conflict with the main character a. not all stories have an antagonist
C. Point of View 1. Vantage point from which a story is told 2. Person telling the story is the narrator 3. 1 st person “I” or “me” 4. 3 rd person – narrator describes the characters and action from outside the story. a. Omniscient – all knowing b. 3 rd person limited – describes events as one character sees them. D. Theme 1. Central message of a story that applies to life a. common themes include insights into human nature and perceptions about life. 2. Stated theme are directly presented in a story 3. Implied themes must be inferred 4. Readers need to consider all the elements of a story and ask what message about life they convey.
E. Plot 1. Sequence of events in a story 2. Conflict – a struggle between opposing forces a. External conflict – struggle between a character and an outside force such as another character, nature, society, or fate. b. Internal conflict – takes place within the mind of a character who struggles with opposing feelings or with indecision about how to act. F. Development 1. Exposition – introduces the story’s characters, setting, and conflict 2. Rising action – develops the conflict with complications and twists 3. Climax – emotional high point of the story 4. Falling action – shows what happens to the characters after climax 5. Resolution – shows how the conflict is resolved or how the problem is solved. (dénouement)