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Reform Movements Chapter 9, Sections 1 & 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Reform Movements Chapter 9, Sections 1 & 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reform Movements Chapter 9, Sections 1 & 2

2 Protestant Revivalists
Leaders Lyman Beecher (minister) 13 children, including author Harriet Beecher Stowe

3 Protestant Revivalists
GOALS OF THE MOVEMENT Believed that if Americans had better values and were more spiritual, then society could be fixed (Good people = a good society)

4 Transcendentalists LEADERS Ralph Waldo Emerson
(poet, minister from Boston) AND Henry David Thoreau wrote WALDEN , about joy of simple living & being close to nature

5 Transcendentalists GOALS OF THE MOVEMENT
** Rejected traditional religion ** Spiritual discovery & insight can be found through reason ** Human beings are naturally good & should be self-reliant, should act on own beliefs ** Involved in other movements believed moral life helped in reforming society

6 Temperance Movement LEADERS Mostly northern women WHY???
socially unacceptable for women to drink women were the ones suffering due to rise in alcoholism (byproduct of industrialization & urbanization)

7 Temperance Movement GOALS OF THE MOVEMENT
+ eliminate consumption of alcohol, b/c it leads to increased domestic violence & child abuse wanted abstinence WHY IN THE NORTH? More people, more cities, easier for women to organize in a city

8 Public Education Movement
LEADERS ***Horace Mann (self-educated lawyer from MA) ACCOMPLISHMENTS taxes to support public education schools divided by grade level consistent curricula consistent teacher training

9 Public Education Movement
GOALS OF THE MOVEMENT + education to promote self-discipline & good citizenship + assimilate everyone, especially new immigrants + teach a common culture + democratic society needs literate, educated citizens ++used McGuffey Readers

10 Prison Reform LEADERS Dorothea Dix (Boston schoolteacher)
visited a prison, saw conditions ** everyone crowded together (People were sent to prison hoping they would use time there to become better people & be productive members of society)

11 Prison Reform GOALS OF THE MOVEMENT ++ better conditions in prisons
(were poorly fed, in rags, in chains, no heat) ++ wanted creation of separate institutions for the mentally ill

12 Utopian Communities LEADERS
+ Robert Owen – founder of New Harmony, in Indiana + the Shakers (branch of the Quakers) ++ known for their furniture

13 Utopian Communities GOALS OF THE MOVEMENT
** create places free from troubles of urban & industrial growth ** all people would share in common property, share work, take care of each other

14 Abolitionist Movement
++ William Lloyd Garrison ** published The Liberator (Boston anti-slavery newspaper) ** founded American Anti-Slavery Society middle class white northerners +++RADICAL +++ DENOUNCED MODERATION IN FIGHT AGAINST SLAVERY

15 Abolitionist Movement
American Colonization Society * felt free blacks & emancipated slaves would never receive equal treatment in society * not all believed in racial equality ++ favored colonization ++ founded LIBERIA

16 Abolitionist Movement
FREDERICK DOUGLASS + escaped slave + member of Garrison’s Am. Anti Slavery Society + spoke in US & Great Britain + autobiography – Life & Times of Frederick Douglass + published the North Star (newspaper)

17 Abolitionist Movement
FREDERICK DOUGLASS (continued) +++ member of Garrison’s society +++ opposed use of violence +++ slavery should be fought with deeds as well as words

18 Abolitionist Movement
UNDERGROUND RAILROAD +++Harriet Tubman (former slave) Network of escape routes for slaves fleeing to the North People opened homes, gave food, money, supplies, shelter, medical attention to slaves on their way North +++ risked prison by doing so

19 Abolitionist Movement
Some refused to wait for long-term legal strategies to work to end slavery Used both legal & illegal means to attack slavery See pages

20 Abolitionist Movement
DIVISIONS OVER WOMENS’ PARTICIPATION Americans in general DID NOT approve of womens’ involvement. Garrison insisted they be allowed to speak, many men left Society. GRIMKE SISTERS SOJOURNER TRUTH DIVISIONS OVER RACE Issue was personal for African-Americans, felt many white abolitionists saw them as inferior DIVISIONS OVER TACTICS Some argued should use legal means, some felt that wasn’t enough

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