Iron Curtain Term coined by Churchill Used to described the division of Europe **This is an invisible curtain!!
East and West Berlin 1945-1990 Berlin was divided into East (Commie) and West (Democracy)
Good to Remember… North-East = Communism South-West = Democracy
Cold War Policy of US and the West Tensions developed: US and USSR don’t trust each other Soviets (totalitarianism and communism) Vs US and West (democracy and capitalism) US saw Soviets as a threat to spread communism throughout Europe
Containment Policy of US and West was to “contain” (stop) the spread of Communism: Truman Doctrine
Domino Theory If one country “falls” to communism, soon after its neighbor will also become communist Then the next neighbor will “fall” … and so on This was used to justify U.S. involvement in Europe
US Policy- The Truman Doctrine 1947 – Pres. Truman’s economic and military aid program to help people resist communist aggression
The Marshall Plan US feared poor countries of Europe would come under Soviet control MP: offered economic aid to “any country that needed it” to lessen appeal of communism
Berlin Blockade - 1948 3 democratic sides combined USSR cut-off all land access to Berlin US sent in packages to help out Soviets gave in and eventually opened access routes
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Includes US, Canada and most of W Europe Warsaw Pact – Defensive alliance between the Soviet Union and its satellites Formed in response to NATO
Berlin – The Wall After the split of Germany and Berlin, thousands of Germans fled to W Berlin to escape communist E Germany 1961 – E Germany built a wall to stop the flow The wall symbolized the Cold War
Brinkmanship US Pres. Eisenhower threatened to “retaliate instantly” to any Soviet aggression This led to an arms race Both sides threatened to use all-out nuclear war
Bay of Pigs Unsuccessful action by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba An attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro Invasion was launched in April 1961 The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the invading combatants within three days. All Cuban Nationalists were taken prisoner
Gave Soviets the feeling that the US couldn’t stop them in the Western Hemisphere This will eventually lead to the Cuban Missile Crisis Results…
Cuban Missile Crisis A thirteen-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other JFK vs Nikita Khrushchev The Cuban and Soviet governments secretly began to build bases in Cuba for a number of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles (MRBMs and IRBMs) with the ability to strike most of the continental United States.
On October 14, 1962, a United States Air Force U-2 plane on a photoreconnaissance mission captured photographic proof of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba Marks the first documented instance of the threat of mutual assured destruction (MAD) being discussed as a determining factor in a major international arms agreement Confrontation ended when Soviets decided to remove missiles from Cuba and US privately removed their missiles from Turkey and Italy