Background Causes of World War I Alliances Nationalism Imperialism Militarism
Alliances An agreement between between countries to come to each other’s aid in case of war. Two major alliances: Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (does not enter war on this side, replaced with Ottoman Empire) Triple Entente: France, Russia, and Great Britain If one nation was pulled in war, all would enter
Nationalism Extreme loyalty to a nation and concern for its welfare Multi-ethic empires (Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire) had many groups seeking independence Balkans are ready to explode (“powder keg of Europe, Balkan Peninsula)—Serbia and Bosnia in Balkans
Imperialism A nation’s attempt to gain control of a weaker nation Nations wanted control to gain raw materials, Europe had divided Africa in 1884
Militarism A nation’s policy to maintain strong armed forced Britain and Germany competed for the strongest navy Militarism included complex plans in case war broke out
Immediate Cause: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary (heir to the throne) Shot by a Serbian nationalist in Bosnia, part of Austria- Hungary (A.H.)
Assassination is considered the “spark” of the war A.H. blamed Serbia and Germany gave A.H. a “blank check” saying they would back them no matter what A.H. then gave Serbia an “ultimatum” saying they must agree to all their demands or they would declare war—A.H. declared war anyway Russia then mobilized in case of war— Germany then declares war on Russia and France
Germany then invaded Belgium in order to get to France. Britain then declares war on Germany as Belgium was neutral.
America Neutral? America sympathetic to Allies Lusitania Sussex Pledge Zimmerman Note
Lusitania May 1915, a German submarine sank the British ocean liner Lusitania. Among the hundreds killed, 128 were American. President Wilson warned Germany not to continue to violate international law, which required warships to provide for the safety of the passengers and crews of trading ships they sank. Germany apologized.
Zimmerman Telegram The British intercepted and decoded a secret radio message from Germany to Mexico In this “Zimmerman Telegram,” Germany urged Mexico to attack the United States in return for regaining the southwestern United States. This was the final straw!
The United States enters the War The US declares war on April 6, 1917 Over 100,000 Georgian men and women contributed to the Allied victory
Georgia in the War Soldiers trained in GA at Fort Benning, Fort McPherson, and Camp Gordon—helped state’s economy Textile mills made uniforms Railroads carried troops and goods to port Victory Gardens—citizens planted gardens to raise their own veggies so there would be more food for the military Women helped 3,000 from Georgia died in the war
War Ends— Wilson’s Fourteen Points Three Goals: Elimination of War Causes Right to choose government League of Nations (Wilson’s dream)
Treaty of Versailles --Very harsh on Germany who is forced to agree --Strip Germany of territory, military reduced --Must take blame for entire war --Must pay reparations (payments for war damages)
Lives Lost Russia1,700,000 France1,357,000 Great Britain 908,000 United States 130,174 Germany1,800,000 Austria1,200,000 Diseases, hunger, and other war-related causes 20,000,000 Mangled 6,000,000