Presentation on theme: "The Jefferson Era Part 3 Protecting American Neutrality."— Presentation transcript:
The Jefferson Era Part 3 Protecting American Neutrality
Yankee Traders After the Revolution, American foreign trade soared, and a new nickname was given to American traders. YANKEES found great bargains. Trading went on worldwide. Trade missions sometimes lasted 3 years.
Traders had actually reached the Pacific Northwest 10 years before Lewis & Clark did. Some Native Americans on the coast even referred to white men as “Boston” because they had traded with them so frequently, and had heard the word.
Pirates From Tripoli Traders could make a lot of money trading in the Mediterranean Sea, but pirates from North Africa frequently raided ships and stole merchandise unless a bribe was paid to them.
Muslim pirates from the north coast of Africa (also known as the Barbary Coast) had been raiding Europe for years, capturing men, women, and children, and then using them as slaves. In the late 1700s, even American traders had been kidnapped and held for ransom.
In the early 1800’s, the leader of one pirate nation, Tripoli, demanded a larger bribe than usual. President Jefferson refused to pay it, so Tripoli declared war on the United States. In response, we BLOCKADED the port of Tripoli. Stephen Decatur and the burning of the U.S.S Philadelphia in the harbor of Tripoli.
War With Tripoli In one part of the war, our navy snuck into their harbor and destroyed one of our own ships they had captured and were going to use against us. Marines also landed in North Africa, and marched 500 miles to launch a surprise attack.
The war lasted until 1805. In the end, the ruler of Tripoli signed an agreement to not interfere with American trade. As a nation, we were determined to protect our rights to trade on the ocean.
War in Europe Resumes In 1803, Britain and France had resumed their war. Neither side wanted American products to reach their enemy. Between 1805 and 1807 hundreds of American ships were captured.
Impressment Britain desperately needed more men to fight its war with France, so they resumed an old practice of forcing people into the military. Gangs kidnapped young men and forced them into the navy. This was called IMPRESSMENT.
A Smuggled Letter “Being on shore one day in Lisbon, Portugal, I was seized by a gang and brought on board the British ship Conqueror, where I am still confined. Never have I been allowed to put my foot on shore since I was brought on board, which is now three years.” James Brown — American Sailor
British warships frequently stopped our ships and searched for British sailors. Even worse, many American sailors were also taken.
Americans Are Furious Most Americans were mad that Britain was attacking our ships and kidnapping our sailors. Many called for war against Britain, but President Jefferson knew we weren’t prepared.
Jefferson’s Embargo Act This policy forbade Americans to export or import any goods. Britain and France were hurt, but American businesses were devastated. Farmers suffered, and sailors were out of work. Exports dropped from $108 million to $22 million.
The Nonintercourse Act Jefferson realized the Embargo Act had been a disaster. The Nonintercourse Act was passed in its place. Americans could now trade with all nations except Britain and France.
Jefferson Leaves Office Even though the Embargo Act and Nonintercourse Act were unpopular, Democratic-Republicans remained fairly strong. Jefferson followed tradition and stepped down after two terms. His friend James Madison ran for office, and was easily elected. He hoped Britain and France would respect our neutrality.
Madison as President He was a quiet, scholarly man. Like other presidents, he wanted to avoid war. However, many Americans felt that if we didn’t stand up to Britain and France, we would never gain respect. By 1812, many Americans definitely wanted war.
Madison’s New Policy President Madison announced that whichever country would agree to stop attacking our ships, we would do business with that nation, and stop all trade with the other one. Almost immediately, France accepted this offer, and trade was totally cut off with Britain.