Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Rhetorical Appeals"— Presentation transcript:
1 An Introduction to Rhetorical Appeals Logos, Pathos, & EthosAn Introduction to Rhetorical Appeals
2 Background Information Rhetoric is the use of words for a specific purpose, often to persuade an audience.According to Aristotle, there are three main strategies employed when appealing to an audience: logos, ethos, and pathos.
3 Logos – An Appeal to Logic “Logos (Greek for ‘word’) refers to the internal consistency of the message—the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument’s logical appeal” (Ramage).
4 Logos – An Appeal to Logic An appeal to logos can be createdthrough the use of logic based onirrefutable facts, verifiablenumbers, and the inexorable marchof reason across the course of awell-constructed speech, the pagesof a critical paper, or the surfacesof compelling advertisements.When hunting for or seeking toemploy logos, consider: facts asevidence, research/ statistics,quoted authorities, cause andeffect, analogies and comparisons,common sense/shared values, andprecedent.How is this ad an example of a visual metaphor?
5 Pathos – An Appeal to Emotion “Pathos (Greek for ‘suffering’ or ‘experience’) is often associated with emotional appeal. But a better equivalent might be ‘appeal to the audience’s sympathies and imagination.’ An appeal to pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify with the writer’s point of view—to feel what the writer feels….Pathos refers to both the emotional and the imaginative impact of the message on an audience, the power with which the writer’s message moves the audience to decision or action” (Ramage).
6 Pathos – An Appeal to Emotion An appeal based on pathos istargeted at the realm of emotion.It's why campaigns try to wrapthemselves in a national flagand manuever to make you fear“the other”. It's why a winningsmile and puppy-dog eyes workmagic in cementing anadvertisement’s main message inthe minds of viewers. It’s whywords aimed at the heartstringsoften strike a chord within even themost savvy and skeptical readers.When pinpointing or seeking toutilize pathos, consider: connotativediction, imagery, or figurative language,anecdotes, examples, images that evokean emotional response, and carefullycrafted syntax (sentence patterns).How is this ad working on the pathos level?
7 Ethos – An Appeal to Ethics “Ethos (Greek for ‘character’) refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views. It can also be affected by the writer’s reputation as it exists independently from the message—his or her expertise in the field, his or her previous record or integrity, and so forth. The impact of ethos is often called the argument’s ‘ethical appeal’ or the ‘appeal from credibility’” (Ramage).The Speaker
8 Ethos – An Appeal to Ethics An appeal based on ethos centerson the ethical character of the speakerand their sources of information. Quitesimply, it matters who's trying topersuade you and whom they referencefor support. If the person trying to swayan audience demonstrates “commonsense, virtue, and goodwill,” then thelisteners will be more likely to believewhat that person states. If anadvertisement cites a reputableinstitution’s stastics, the claim of the adbecomes more plausible.When seeking or straining to implementethos, consider: the stating of qualificationsfor expertise, citing relevant authorities andallusions, making qualified claims (perhaps,sometimes, etc.), and restating opposingviews accurately and fairly.How does this image extend beyond mere celebrity endorsement to include ethos?
9 Major ResourceRamage, John D. and John C. Bean. Writing Arguments. 4th Edition. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, ,