Presentation on theme: "The Art of Persuasion. Introduction How do you persuade your parents to let you go to an activity they do not approve of? How do you convince a friend."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction How do you persuade your parents to let you go to an activity they do not approve of? How do you convince a friend to join you for a movie they don’t really feel like seeing? How do you convince a teacher to give you more time on an assignment?
Analysis In the previous questions, did you use the same or different methods of persuasion? Why? What was different about each situation? That’s right; you had a different audience.
Audience Knowing your audience is one part of persuasion. Why do you need to know the audience? Knowing the audience will help you Knowing the audience will help you decide the tonedecide the tone select appropriate vocabularyselect appropriate vocabulary select the best possible supporting evidenceselect the best possible supporting evidence
Methods of writing There are three main ways to address your audience. Formal speech Formal speech Informal speech Informal speech Familiar speech Familiar speech
Formal writing/speech Purpose: to inform, instruct, or convince Tone: dignified and impersonal 3rd person 3rd person Language: formal diction and tightly structured syntax uses full sentences uses full sentences contains no slang contains no slang contains no colloquial expressions contains no colloquial expressions What are some uses?
Informal writing/speech Purpose: to entertain (more than to inform) Tone: less serious and lighter than a formal essay Language: less formal diction with more flexible syntax What are some uses?
Familiar writing/ speech Purpose: often used to express innermost thoughts and feelings (reflections) Tone: use of first person may create a warmer, more confidential tone rather than impersonal style Language: less formal diction and relaxed syntax (may be more like a journal, for example) What are some uses?
Examples Think of an example of when you would write formally in the classroom. When might you write informally in the classroom? When might you write in the familiar in the classroom?
What next? Considering your audience is only one of the key ingredients to a good argument. You also need to consider your rhetorical approach. There are three main rhetorical styles Pathos – an appeal to emotion Pathos – an appeal to emotion Ethos – an appeal to the credibility of the writer / speaker Ethos – an appeal to the credibility of the writer / speaker Logos – an appeal to logic Logos – an appeal to logic
Pathos UUUUses emotion to get the reader to respond Ex. Senator X has no sense of patriotism since s/he wants to cut back on military spending. The author is trying to upset the reader into agreement against voting for Senator X.
Ethos Emphasis is placed on why a person should believe the writer/speaker. Ex. 4 out of 5 doctors agree on X brand medicine. Ex. 4 out of 5 doctors agree on X brand medicine. Since they are doctors, they want you to feel you should agree with them since they know medicine.Since they are doctors, they want you to feel you should agree with them since they know medicine. Beware of this one – there may be fallacies afoot. Can you see the possible fallacy here?Beware of this one – there may be fallacies afoot. Can you see the possible fallacy here? That’s right – it does not say what type of doctor to whom they are referring.That’s right – it does not say what type of doctor to whom they are referring.
Logos This is the strongest of the appeals overall because it is based on logic. (This does not mean that it is the most influential, but rather that it is the most solid.) Ex. All cats are mammals. Fluffy is a cat. Therefore, Fluffy is a mammal. Ex. All cats are mammals. Fluffy is a cat. Therefore, Fluffy is a mammal.
Uses So when might each appeal be used? Actually, you need to consider each of the three for any argument. You will probably focus on one main style, but all three need to be considered and there is usually a mixing of at least two. The one you should focus on for essays for English, however, is LOGOS.
Wrap it up What does SOAPS stand for? When do you need to consider SOAPS? What are the three ways to address an audience? What are the three different rhetorical appeals?