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Surface Water.

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Presentation on theme: "Surface Water."— Presentation transcript:

1 Surface Water

2 BIG Idea: Surface water moves materials produced by weathering and shapes the surface of Earth.

3 What types of bodies of water constitute surface water?

4 rivers lakes streams ponds seas

5 From where does surface water come?

6 rain ice snow under the ground

7 Where does surface water go?

8 under the ground into the ocean evaporates into the sky

9 I. THE WATER CYCLE (Hydrologic Cycle)
EVAPORATION: liquid water changes to water vapor (gas)

10 TRANSPIRATION: plants give off water vapor into the air

11 EVAPOTRANSPIRATION: combined processes of evaporation and transpiration

12 CONDENSATION: change from water vapor to liquid water

13 SUBLIMATION: ice slowly changes to gas without first entering a liquid state

14 PRECIPITATION: water falls from clouds to Earth’s surface (in the form of rain, snow, sleet, hail)

15 RUNOFF: water that flows over the land into streams and rivers





soil composition rate of precipitation vegetation slope

21 A. Water Budget The water budget is like a financial budget…
You want both to be balanced.

22 precipitation is the income
evapotranspiration and runoff are the expenses

23 II. RIVER SYSTEMS Made up of a main stream and all the feeder streams that flow into it Tributaries: feeder streams for rivers

24 Watershed: area of land that drains into a lake, river or stream
Also known as the Drainage Basin

25 Chesapeake Watershed 1 of the 3 major regional watersheds of VA
15 million people live within the area covers over 64,000 square miles

26 Where do the 3 major regional watershed systems in VA lead?
Chesapeake Bay North Carolina Sounds Gulf of Mexico

27 CHANNEL: The path that a stream follows
A. STREAM EROSION CHANNEL: The path that a stream follows

28 STREAM LOAD: materials carried by a stream
Fine sand and silt; speed keeps particles suspended (not sinking to river bottom) Larger materials scrape along river sides and bottom along river bottom Short jumps made by bed load if the river is moving fast enough

29 Ways that sediments are carried in a stream:
Bed Load Solution Suspension

30 Bed Load Large, heavy sediments are pushed or rolled along the bottom of a stream’s bed.

31 Saltation: Short jumps made by bed load if the river is moving fast enough.

32 Solution Materials dissolved in a stream’s water.

33 Suspension Particles small enough to be held up by the stream’s moving water.


35 DISCHARGE: volume of moved water by a stream
at a given time

36 The faster the stream flows…
The higher its discharge… The greater the load it can carry


38 Gradient: steepness of the slope the stream is flowing down
The gradient is steepest near the headwaters (beginning of the stream)

Mature and Old Youthful Rejuvenated

40 1. YOUTHFUL RIVERS “V” shaped valley with steep sides
waterfalls and rapids few tributaries small volume of water


42 2. MATURE RIVERS many tributaries high volume of water erosion occurs along widening valley walls and during floods

43 a. MEANDERS: series of wide curves

44 b. OXBOW LAKES: closed off meander isolated away from the main part of the river




48 3. OLD RIVER low gradient with slow flow no longer erodes land starts to fill itself in with sediment

49 4. REJUVENATED RIVER gradient of a river becomes steeper due to tectonic activity



52 Is this river young, old, or middle aged?

53 III. STREAM DEPOSITION Deposition: the process by which Earth materials carried by wind, water, or ice settle out and are deposited (like money in the bank)

54 How sediments are deposited



57 A. Delta: fan shaped deposit at the mouth of a stream


59 B. Alluvial Fan: delta on land due to the rapid reduction of a stream.

60 C. Flood Deposits 1. Flood Plain: part of the valley that may be covered with water during a flood.


62 2. Natural Levees: raised riverbank that results when a river floods.




66 IV. Glaciers large, moving masses of ice form:
near Earth’s poles and in mountainous areas at high elevations cover about 10% of Earth’s surface

67 Two Types: formed in mountainous areas long narrow wedge of moving ice
1. Valley Glacier: formed in mountainous areas long narrow wedge of moving ice

68 Erode a U-shaped valley


70 2. Continental Glacier: cover millions of square miles (only found on Greenland and Antarctica)

71 Glacial Till: unsorted rock, gravel, sand, and clay that glaciers carry and deposit
Moraine: unsorted ridges of till left behind when the glacier melts

72 Glacial Striations in Central Park, NY

73 Glacial Erratic in Central Park, NY (Pegmatite)

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