Presentation on theme: "Objectives Describe how surface water can move weathered materials."— Presentation transcript:
1 Objectives Describe how surface water can move weathered materials. Section 9.1Surface Water MovementObjectivesDescribe how surface water can move weathered materials.Explain how a stream carries its load.Describe how a floodplain develops.Running water is an agent of erosion, carrying sediments in streams and rivers and depositing them downstream.
3 What determines the amount of runoff? Section 9.1What determines the amount of runoff?1. Soil compositionPore spaces:The particle size that makes up a soil helps determine the pore space of the soil.Porosity ActivityLarge grain size Fine grain size Mixed grain size
4 If precipitation exceeds infiltration, the water will become runoff. Section 9.1What determines the amount of runoff?2. Rate of precipitationIf precipitation exceeds infiltration, the water will become runoff.
8 The steeper the slope, the faster the water flows. Section 9.1Surface Water MovementRunoff Activity4. SlopeWater from precipitation falling on slopes flows to areas of lower elevation.The steeper the slope, the faster the water flows.
13 Stream Systems Watersheds and divides Section 9.1Surface Water MovementStream SystemsWatersheds and dividesAll of the land area whose water drains into a stream system is called the system’s watershed.A divide is a high land area that separates one watershed from another.
14 The watershed of the Mississippi River Section 9.1Surface Water MovementThe watershed of the Mississippi River
15 Section 9.1Surface Water MovementStream LoadThe material that a stream carries is known as stream load. Stream load is carried in three ways.
16 Section 9.1Surface Water Movement1. Suspensionall particles are held up by the turbulence of a stream’s moving water.
20 Section 9.1Stream Load ActivitySurface Water Movement3. SolutionWhen water runs through or over rocks with soluble minerals, it dissolves small amounts of the minerals and carries them away in the solution.
22 Stream Carrying Capacity Section 9.1Surface Water MovementStream Carrying CapacityThe ability of a stream to transport material, referred to as its carrying capacity,Depends on both the velocity and the amount of water moving in the stream.
23 Section 9.1Surface Water MovementFloodsA flood occurs when water spills over the sides of a stream’s banks onto the adjacent land.
24 Flood plains Surface Water Movement Section 9.1Surface Water MovementFlood plainsThe area that extends out from a stream’s bank and is covered by excess water during times of flooding is known as the stream’s floodplain
25 Section 9.2Stream DevelopmentObjectivesDescribe some of the physical features of stream development.Describe the relationship between meanders and stream flow.Explain the process of rejuvenation in the stream development.Streams erode paths through sediment and rock, forming V-shaped stream valleys.
26 Section 9.2Stream DevelopmentSupply of WaterThe region where water first accumulates to supply a stream is called the headwaters.Stream channels
27 Section 9.2Stream DevelopmentStream channelsMoving water carves a narrow pathway into the sediment or rock called the stream channel.
28 Formation of Stream Valleys Section 9.2Stream DevelopmentFormation of Stream ValleysA bend or curve in a stream channel caused by moving water is called a meander.Meanders
29 Meanders - Movie Clip Outside of meander Section 9.2Stream DevelopmentMeanders - Movie ClipOutside of meanderWater moving along the outside of a meander curve experiences the speed with the meander and erodes the side of the streambed.Inside of meanderAlong the inside of a meander, the water moves more slowly and deposition is dominant.
32 Deposition of Sediment Section 9.2Stream DevelopmentDeposition of SedimentWhen streams lose velocity, they lose some of the energy needed to transport sediment, and deposition of sediment occurs.
33 composed mostly of sand and gravel. Section 9.2Stream Development1. Alluvial fansfan-shaped, sloping depositional features that form when water flows down steep slopes onto flat plains.composed mostly of sand and gravel.
34 consist of layers of silt and clay particles. Section 9.2Stream Development2. Deltastriangular deposit that forms where a stream enters a large body of waterconsist of layers of silt and clay particles.Nile delta