Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotion liudexiang. Perspectives on motivation Instincts Drive-reduction theory Arousal theory Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation A hierarchy."— Presentation transcript:
Perspectives on motivation Instincts Drive-reduction theory Arousal theory Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation A hierarchy of motives
Motive Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal- directed behavior.
Instincts Inborn, inflexible, goal-directed behavior that is characteristic of an entire species.
Drive-reduction theory Drive :State of tension or arousal that motivates behavior. Homeostasis: State of balance and stability in which the organism functions effectively. Drive-reduction theory: States that motivated behavior is aimed at reducing a state of bodily tension or arousal and at returning the organism to homeostasis.
Drive-reduction theory Primary drive : An unlearned drive, such as hunger, that is based on a physiological state. Second drive : A learned drive, such as ambition, that is not based on a physiological state.
Arousal theory Theory of motivation that proposes that organisms seek an optimal level of arousal. Yerkes-Dodson Law : States that there is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task; the more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates.
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation : A desire to perform a behavior that stems from the enjoyment derived from the behavior itself. Extrinsic motivation : A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment.
A hierarchy of motives Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Belongingness needs Safety needs Physiological needs
Emotion Feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior.
Theory of emotion James-Lange theory Cannon-Bard theory Cognitive theory
James-Lange theory States that stimuli cause physiological changes in our bodies, and emotions result from those physiological changes.
Cannon-Bard theory States that the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously with biological changes.
Cognitive theory States that emotional experience depends on one’s perception or judgment of a situation.