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Take out a piece of paper and take notes…

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1 Take out a piece of paper and take notes…
Argument Essay Take out a piece of paper and take notes…

2 What is the argument essay?
The purpose of the argument essay is to convince or persuade the audience to do something or think in a certain way. In it, you state a claim: make clear what you are arguing for or against You must organize your reasons and supporting details in paragraphs

3 In an Argument Essay… Use relevant information from the sources you studied (read about)to support your claim  Acknowledge and refute the counterclaim (counterargument)  Include direct quotes from sources

4 State your claim (thesis) clearly.
Include at least three strong reasons that support the claim. Support, or elaborate, each reason with facts, quotes and examples from the text. Anticipate possible counterclaims objections and acknowledge them Arrange your reasons in the most persuasive order Use persuasive but polite language End by summarizing your reasons and calling your audience to action.

5 Audience-Who is reading your essay Voice-Be polite Introduction
What do we need to think about when writing an effective Persuasive essay? Audience-Who is reading your essay Voice-Be polite Introduction Supporting Paragraphs Conclusion

6 Where do we begin? Read the topic Take a stance-choose a side
Brainstorm the issue-organize your writing with a graphic organizer Have facts, quotes and supporting details to substantiate your claim (thesis).

7 Transitional Words/Phrases
As you proceed through your text you need to use transitions and links for coherence. Readers expect to move with ease from one sentence to the other and from one paragraph to the next…… Your document must “FLOW”.

8 What is this?

9 Why reference a grasshopper?
Do not force readers to grapple with “grasshopper prose,” which jumps suddenly from one idea to another without obvious connections. Your paper needs to flow!

10 Make your writing coherent, with all the parts connecting clearly to one another with transitional expressions, context links, and word links.

11 Use connecting words like this, that, these, and those to refer to something mentioned at the end of the previous sentence or paragraph.

12 Transitional Expressions
Adding an idea: also, in addition, further , furthermore, moreover Contrasting: however, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the other hand, in contrast, still, rather, conversely Showing time order: later, subsequently, meanwhile, previously, finally Showing result: consequently, therefore, thus, hence, accordingly, for this reason, as a result

13 More of the same… Affirming:
of course, in fact, certainly, obviously, to be sure, undoubtedly, indeed Giving Examples: for example, for instance Adding an aside: Incidentally, by the way, besides Summarizing: In short, generally, overall, all in all, in conclusion

14 Do not overuse transitions...
Too many of them, used too often, give writing a heavy and mechanical flavor. It is all about the flow, organization, and integration of your paper.

15 The Prompt Research the pros and cons of youth sports. Now, imagine that your school district is going to make a final decision about continuing to fund sports programs in the schools. You have a chance to write a letter that will be read to the mayor, printed in the paper, or presented to the head of the school board or PTA.

16 The Directions… Your letter should state a claim or thesis by taking a clear side, backing it up with research, and refuting the other side. Your job is to argue whether overall, sports are good or bad for kids. Letters are really just a form of essay, so use what you know about essay writing to structure your letter. Be sure to back up your claim with reasons and evidence, supported by facts and details from multiple sources you studied and analysis of those sources. Be sure to cite important references.

17 The Introduction For many young people in America, sports are their dreams and hopes. And this is not without reason. Research has shown that children who participate in athletics are happier and more goal-driven than their non-athletic peers. High school athletics are still a highly beneficial activity for young people everywhere, and this is why it is important for sports programs across the country to stay right where they are. Sports programs should be kept in high schools because they have a positive effect on academics, they improve determination, and they bring people together.

18 How to Write a Good Introduction
Do not assume your reader knows your assigned prompt/topic/question. Provide context and background information to set up your topic. Lead readers to expect a statement of your point of view.

19 Establish the tone from the onset of the paper: Argumentative/Persuasive
Engage the readers’ interest; provide a hook (attention grabber) that will make the readers want to continue reading.

20 What to Avoid Avoid becoming overly general and telling readers the obvious, such as “Crime is a big problem” or “In this fast-paced world, TV is a popular form of entertainment”. Do not refer to your writing intentions – “In this essay, I will….” Do not make extravagant claims, such as “This essay will prove that bilingual education works for every student.” Do not restate the assigned essay question.

21 What is the Hook? Surprising statistics A concise quotation
An unusual fact A relevant anecdote A challenging question Interesting background details An intriguing opinion statement.

22 Intro Hook Connecting sentence Thesis (claim) Three Reasons

23 Think of your conclusion as completing a circle.

24 You have taken your readers on a journey from the presentation of the topic in your introduction, to your thesis, to supporting evidence and discussion including specific examples. Remind readers the purpose of your journey. Recall the main idea of the paper and make a strong statement about it. Leave the readers feeling complete with a full understanding of the topic.

25 Key Points for a Conclusion
Include a summary of the points you have made, but keep it short and use fresh wording. Frame your essay by reminding the reader of something you referred to in your introduction and by reminding the reader of your “topic”.

26 End on a strong note: a quotation, a question, a suggestion, a reference to an anecdote in the introduction, a humorous and insightful comment, a call to action, or a look to the future.

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