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Signposting L 5 Ing. Jiří Šnajdar

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2 Signposting L 5 Ing. Jiří Šnajdar

3 What is signposting? It’s the way you signal the path you have taken though an assignment. In other words, it’s the information you give about what topics are going to be covered, the order in which they come and the angle or focus of the discussion or argument.

4 There are two types of signposting:
1. Major signposts – these are the words and phrases that tell your reader the purpose, structure, your position, main points, direction of the argument and signal your conclusion.

5 Writing a really strong clear introduction is very helpful.
This is where you have a chance to identify the key themes of your discussion, your main argument and focus. You can also indicate something about the order of the subject matter.

6 In your introduction. you also:
• show that you are going to answer the question • show that you understand the issues and their implications • indicate the structure of your answer and make clear the main areas that you are going to write about • show evidence that you have carried out some research by making a reference to one of your sources

7 If you are writing a report, then you are usually expected to write a summary and include a contents page. The headings and subheadings also give a good indication of the order of your work. Click the link for more help on writing reports. The art of signposting is using key words and phrases to enable the reader to navigate their way through your argument. Here are some signposting words which will prove invaluable in that process. You may have your own favourites.

8 2. Linking words and phrases – use these to connect your sentences and paragraphs, showing the ‘route’ through your work. Showing cause and effect: accordingly, as a result, consequently, for that reason, for this purpose, hence, therefore, etc.

9 Placing ideas in time: again, at first, at least, at length, at once, at that time, at the same time, concurrently, during this time, earlier, eventually, finally, first, second, third, etc. Summarising ideas: all in all, altogether, as has been noted, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, etc.

10 Signposting Essay Conclusions
Try some of these: The aim of this study is to …; The purpose of this thesis is to …; This essay argues that …; The main questions addressed in this paper are …; This essay critically examines …; The above discussion raises some interesting questions. This paper begins by … It will then go on to ... Finally, …This chapter reviews the literature …In conclusion, …


12 Adding also, and, as well (as); besides; furthermore; in addition; similarly Building on the last section having established that; if so; in order to; in that/this case; in this connection; moreover; so; that/which implies; then

13 Concluding in conclusion; in summary; to conclude; to recap; to summarize Contrast all the same; by way of contrast; conversely; despite that; however; in contrast; instead; never the less; none the less; on the other hand

14 Examples as an illustration; exemplifying this; for example; for instance Giving reasons because; because of; due to; for this reason; therefore List firstly, secondly, … finally; first and foremost; most importantly

15 Refining effectively, this suggests; in essence; more precisely; more specifically; to make this explicit Reformulating an idea again; alternatively/an alternative is; in other words; on the other hand; or; rather; that is Result accordingly; as a result; consequently; for this reason; hence; so; then; therefore


17 A good way to make your presentations effective, interesting and easy to follow is to use signpost language. 'Signpost language' is the words and phrases that people use to tell the listener what has just happened, and what is going to happen next.

18 In other words, signpost language guides the listener through the presentation.
A good presenter will usually use a lot of signpost language, so it is a good idea to learn a few of the common phrases, even if you spend more time listening to presentations than giving them. Signpost language is usually fairly informal, so it is relatively easy to understand.

19 Signposting sentences
What are signposting sentences? Signposting sentences explain the logic of your argument. They tell the reader what you are going to do at key points in your assignment. They are most useful when used in the following places:

20 In the introduction At the beginning of a paragraph which develops a new idea At the beginning of a paragraph which expands on a previous idea At the beginning of a paragraph which offers a contrasting viewpoint At the end of a paragraph to sum up an idea In the conclusion

21 You may also wish to add your own sentence stems to the list below:
Signposting stems for an introduction To understand the role of ... (your topic) this essay aims to provide a discussion of ... (the ideas you will develop) This essay seeks to investigate/evaluate/illustrate/discuss the impact of ... (your topic) in relation to ... (the ideas you will develop)

22 Firstly, this assignment examines. (your topic) and its links with
Firstly, this assignment examines ... (your topic) and its links with ... (your first idea) Next, it closely examines ... in relation to ... (your next idea) Finally, it focuses on ... and how this affects ...(your next idea)

23 Signposting stems for a paragraph which introduces or develops a new idea
One aspect which illustrates ... (your topic) can be identified as ... (the idea you want to develop) The current debate about ... (your topic) identifies an interesting viewpoint on ...(the idea you want to develop)

24 This first/next/ final section provides a general discussion of
This first/next/ final section provides a general discussion of ...(the idea you want to develop) Signposting stems for a paragraph which expands upon a previous idea Building on from the idea that ... (mention previous idea), this section illustrates that ... (introduce your new idea).

25 Thank you for your attention

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