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Nutrition through the Life Stages

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1 Nutrition through the Life Stages
Chapter 11

2 Why is it important to change your diet based on your life stage?
In all stages of life we need the same basic nutrients. However, each life stage is associated with certain nutritional concerns. These stages are Infancy Toddlerhood Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Also during pregnancy for women

3 Infancy 0-6 months and 7-12 months Nutritional Concerns:
Require more of each nutrient per pound of body weight Growth is most rapid: muscles, bones and other tissues develop at dramatic rates Example: more calcium is needed for rapid bone growth

4 What do they eat? Breast milk or iron fortified formula is the proper nutrition for an infant Infant rice cereals are the first foods introduced after milk at 4-6 months After that introduce foods one at a time to detect allergies about the time when they are able to sit (Wait 4-5 days in between) Usually strained fruits and vegetables come after cereals When they develop teeth they can start to have chopped and mashed foods

5 Toddlerhood 1-3 years Nutritional Concerns:
Bone growth slows from infancy Muscles of the legs and arms begin to develop more fully. Nutrient needs are greater still due to these factors

6 What should they eat? They like to pick up foods/eat with their fingers Rejecting food shows independence it is normal Food should be cut into bite sized pieces Milk continues to be very important in the diet (Do not give them fat free milk. Needed for development of brain & other organs) Nutrient needs are high, but they have small stomachs. Therefore, they need small amounts of nutrient dense foods and frequent feedings. Be careful of foods they could choke on

7 Childhood 4-8 years Nutritional concerns:
Continue to eat the same basic foods as toddlers, but in greater amounts. Increased energy needs & larger bodies = more calories needed Continued growth at different rates: illness, poor eating habits, emotional stress, genetics all effect growth patterns Exercise is important in muscle and bone development Daily requirements for high quality protein and vitamins & minerals increase due to growth of body tissue

8 What should they eat? Breakfast is important. Children who skip breakfast have trouble concentrating in school. Children supplement meals with snacks: healthy snack include yogurt, raising, carrot sticks, fruits, fat free milk They need nutrient dense foods & need more calories than toddler about 1,700/day Be careful of unnecessary weight gain leading to childhood obesity

9 Adolescence 9-13 years 14-18 years Nutritional Concerns
Body undergoes many changes during this time Good food habits now predict good habits in the future Puberty: reaching sexual maturity There is a growth spurt: period of rapid physical growth Increased height and muscle development Daily calorie needs increase again, but specific needs are based on gender, growth rate & activity level. Nutrient needs increase

10 What should they eat? As activity level increases with sports,
so do calorie needs about 2,500 Avoid high fat high, high sodium, sugary foods like candy, chips, pop Skipping meals can make it harder to concentrate in school. Need a constant supply of energy Avoid unnecessary weight gain, smoking & alcohol

11 Adulthood Covers the largest range of years Early adulthood19-30 years
Early middle adulthood 31-50 Middle adulthood 50-70 Late adulthood/Elderly 70+ Nutritional concerns: More likely to develop special health needs due to disease protection and prevention Exercise and good health are important to avoid heart disease Calorie needs decrease as activity decreases (slowing reflexes) Increase calcium for bone strength & health

12 What should they eat? Lots of fruits & vegetables which contain antioxidants and phytochemicals to help prevent diseases like heart disease, cancer, diabetes, etc Calcium is important as they are at increased risk for osteoporosis and bone fractures due to bone mass loss in old age A high fiber diet promotes regularity and fights heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, etc More nutrient dense foods due to calorie decrease in the diet

13 Pregnancy Needs Women should be in good health before getting pregnant
Underweight or overweight women are at risk for premature delivery Extra protein is needed to build fetal & uterine tissue Pregnant and lactating women should not skip meals They should also make sure to get enough fluids 6-8 glasses of water /day

14 Increased amounts of vitamins
Folic acid needs increase to 400 mg to develop the baby’s brain & spinal chord B12 works with folate to create red blood cells Zinc supports growth of fetus Magnesium for fetal bones & tissues Increased fluid needs for production of breast milk Hormonal changes may effect nutrient needs More susceptible to disease if nutrient needs are not met

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