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Ch.12: Nutrition Through the Life Span: Pregnancy & Infancy

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1 Ch.12: Nutrition Through the Life Span: Pregnancy & Infancy
Identify the most significant indicator of an infant’s future health status Identify the increased nutrient needs during pregnancy Describe appropriate food choices from the Food Guide Pyramid for pregnant women Identify weight gain recommendations for pregnancy—underweight, normal weight, and obese

2 Chapter 12: contd. Describe strategies to alleviate morning sickness, heartburn, and constipation during pregnancy Identify life style practices to avoid during pregnancy List the benefits of breast feeding Identify contraindications to breast feeding

3 Chapter 12: contd. Identify nutrients that need to be emphasized during lactation List the main advantage of formula feedings Identify nutrient needs of the infant Identify what vitamin-mineral supplements may be needed for the infant

4 Chapter 12: contd. Determine indicators for introducing solid foods
Identify the single most important nutritional measure to undertake during the 1st year of a child’s life Define nursing bottle tooth decay (bottle mouth syndrome) and how to prevent it

5 Preparing for Pregnancy
There is a strong correlation between pre-pregnancy weight and infant birth weight. Infant Birth Weight is the Most Potent Single Indicator of the Infant’ s Future Health Status Low birth weight is 5½ pounds or less

6 Preparing for Pregnancy, Cntd.
Low birth weight babies have a greater chance of dying early in life Pre-pregnancy nutrition determines whether a mother will be able to grow a healthy placenta Placenta: provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus

7 Nutrition during Pregnancy
Energy—one of the smallest increases—only 300 kcalories per day in 2nd and 3rd trimesters Protein: extra 10 grams Carbohydrate: generous amounts for protein sparing Vitamins: Folate and B12 increased for new cell and red blood cell production

8 Nutrition, Cntd. Minerals: Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in demand for bone development and growth Fluoride: Fluoridate water or supplements recommended for teeth development Iron: Increase needed to develop stores in the fetus

9 Food Group Choices Choose foods of high nutrient density since energy needs only increase slightly Milk group: nonfat or skimmed milk products Meat Group: lean meats, eggs and liver Vegetables: dark greens, deep yellows

10 Food Groups, cntd. Fruits: Vitamin C rich sources
Breads and Cereals: Whole grain and high fiber

11 Recommended Weight Gain
Underweight: pounds Normal weight: pounds Overweight: pounds (never try to diet during pregnancy) Ideal weight gain is 3½ pounds during 1st trimester and then 1 pound per wk. WEIGHT GAIN IS NOT ALL BABY

12 Problems during Pregnancy
Gestational Diabetes: can result in complications—HBW baby Nausea and Heartburn: recommendations in text on page 308 Constipation: High fiber diet, physical activity and fluids and natural laxatives, e.g. prune juice

13 Practices to Avoid Cigarette Smoking: small babies
Caffeine: should be limited Dieting: dieting that results in ketosis may impair fetus brain development Alcohol: NEVER! Risk of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Drugs: only on physician’s recommendation

14 Breastfeeding Mother’s nutritional needs:
Extra energy required to produce milk (500 extra kcalories per day) Water is also necessary to prevent dehydration Contraindications to Breastfeeding Use of alcohol; excessive caffeine use; smoking; HIV/AIDS; drug use and oral contraceptives

15 Infant Nutrition Nutrient Needs: Breast Milk:
Birth weight should double in 4-6 months and triple in one year Infants require highest amount of nutrients per unit of body weight than any other age Vitamin K is given at birth for blood clotting Breast Milk: Provides all nutrient needs for first 4-6 months Exception is Vitamin D

16 Infant Nutrition, Cntd. Infant Formulas
If breastfeeding, infant requires Vitamin D, and Fluoride Immunological protection provided by colostrum to protect against infections Breastfed babies also have fewer allergies Infant Formulas Can provide adequate nutrition Families members can share in the feeding

17 Infant Nutrition, cntd. Cow’s milk not recommended during the first year—immature digestive system No fat-reduced milk or formula during first two years—fat is necessary for normal brain development Nursing bottle (mouth) syndrome: propping a bottle for infant in bed can cause tooth decay, aspiration, and ear infections

18 Infant Nutrition, Cntd. First Solid Foods
Indicators of readiness for solid foods include: Infant can sit up and control head movements Infant is 4-6 months old Infant has doubled his/her birth weight Should be eating foods from all food groups at the end of the 1st year (a variety of foods!!)

19 Infant Nutrition The single most important measure to undertake during the first year is to encourage eating habits that will support continued normal weight as the child grows. Encourage breast feeding—up to one year if possible Use table foods, not canned baby foods

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