2 NOUN Person, place, thing, idea Common (n): names a general noun; begins with a lower case letter (i.e. city)Proper noun (N): names a specific noun; begins with a capital letter (i.e. Alabaster)Possessive (pos. n., pos. N): shows ownership (i.e. girl’s, Luci’s)
3 Types of NounsCollective Nouns(col n, col N): a noun that names a group of individual people or thingsEX: class, flock, team, crewCompound Nouns (com n, com N): a noun made up of two or more wordsEX: workshop, doghouse, mother-in-law, Ice Age
4 Pronoun (pro) Used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns The word the pronoun stands for is called its ANTECEDENTMrs. Flowers opened the book and began reading it.
5 Personal pronounsRefers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person) or the one spoken about (third person)SINGULARPLURALFirst personI, me, my, mineWe, us, our, oursSecond personYou, your, yoursThird personHe, him, his,She, her, hersIt, itsThey, them, their, theirs
6 PRONOUNS (pro)-reflexive (ref) Reflects back to “self”SingularPlural1st personmyselfourselves2nd personyourselfyourselves3rd personhimselfherselfitselfthemselves
7 Demonstrative pronoun (dem) THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSEPoints out a person, a place, a thing, or an ideaEx: This is Ernie’s bike.
8 Interrogative pronoun (int) WHAT, WHICH, WHO, WHOM, WHOSEIntroduces a questionEx: Who is the author of “Flowers for Algernon”?
9 Relative pronoun (rp) THAT , WHAT, WHICH, WHO, WHOM, WHOSE Introduces a subordinate (dependent) clauseEx: Mr. White received the two hundred pounds that he had wished for.
10 Indefinite pronouns (ind) Refer to a person, a place, or a thing that is not specifically namedEx: All of them wanted to hear the story of Urashma Taro.Ex: The travelers saw someone.Most common indefinite pronouns: all, any, anyone, both, each, either, everybody, few, many, none, no one, one, several, some, something
11 ADJECTIVE (adj)Modifies nouns and pronouns (i.e. I have a green pen. They are happy.)Answers the questions “Which one?” “How many?” or “What kind?”ARTICLES (art): a, an, thePROPER ADJECTIVE (Adj): proper noun used as an adjective (American flag)
12 VERB Shows action or helps to make a statement ACTION VERB (av): LINKING VERB (lv):HELPING VERB (hv):
13 ACTION VERB (av) Shows action (visible or mental) Examples: Visible: jump, grow, deliverMental: believe, know, thinkExamples:She wrote a note.The dog smells the flower.
14 LINKING VERB (lv) Am Was Be Are Were Being Is Been Links two words togetherThe most common linking verb is “to be”“sense” verbs are also often linking verbs, such as appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, etc.Ex: The flower smells pretty. (flower=pretty)AmWasBeAreWereBeingIsBeen
15 HELPING VERB (hv) “helps” an action verb or linking verb If a verb phrase has four verbs, the first three are helping. If it has three verbs, the first two are helping, etc.Ex: We have been taking notes all day. (Taking is an action verb.)Ex: She will be cold without a jacket. (Be is a linking verb.)BEWILLCANSHALLMAYHAVEDOam, are, is, was, were, be, being, beenwill, wouldcan, couldshall, shouldmay, might, musthave, has, haddo, does, did
16 ADVERB (adv)Modifies adjectives (i.e. really cute), verbs (extremely fast), and other adverbs (very easily)Answers the question “How?”, “When?”, “Where?”, or “To what extent?”NOT, NEVER, OFTEN, and ALWAYS are always adverbs
17 PREPOSITION (prep)Shows relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentencei.e. We went to school. We went up the stairs.Common prepositions include: across, after, against, around, at, before, below, between, by, during, except, for, from, in, of, off, on, over, since, through, to, under, until, with, according to, because of, instead of, etc.
18 Joins words, phrases, and clauses CONJUNCTIONJoins words, phrases, and clausesCOORDINATING CONJUNCTION (cc):CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION (cor conj):SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION (sc):
19 COORDINATING CONJUNCTION (cc) acronym FANBOYS(For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So)Ex: I ran AND jumped.
20 CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION (cor conj) not only/but alsoneither/noreither/orboth/andEx: Both Emily and Hannah have pencils.
21 SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION (sc) Starts adverb (adv) dependent clauses (and therefore must be followed by subject and verb)Most common are: after, since, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as if, etc.Ex: I have known Susan since I was 11.
22 INTERJECTION (int)Expresses emotion but has no real connection with the rest of the sentenceSet apart from the sentence by a comma or an exclamation pointi.e. No, I’m not finished with my homework. Wow! What a great new car!
23 VERBALA word formed from a verb but acting as a noun, adjective, or adverbPARTICIPLE (part)GERUND (ger)INFINITIVE (inf)
24 PARTICIPLE (part)Verb acting like an adjective; ends in ING, ED, or other past tense endingsi.e. I have running shoes. Frightened, I ran down the street. It’s an unspoken rule.
25 GERUND (ger)Verb acting like a noun; ends in INGi.e. Reading is fun.
26 INFINITIVE (inf) To + verb Can act like a noun (I like to eat), adjective (It’s the best place to eat), or adverb (I need a pen to write a letter)