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Parts of Speech.

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Presentation on theme: "Parts of Speech."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parts of Speech

2 NOUN Person, place, thing, idea
Common (n): names a general noun; begins with a lower case letter (i.e. city) Proper noun (N): names a specific noun; begins with a capital letter (i.e. Alabaster) Possessive (pos. n., pos. N): shows ownership (i.e. girl’s, Luci’s)

3 Types of Nouns Collective Nouns(col n, col N): a noun that names a group of individual people or things EX: class, flock, team, crew Compound Nouns (com n, com N): a noun made up of two or more words EX: workshop, doghouse, mother-in-law, Ice Age

4 Pronoun (pro) Used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns
The word the pronoun stands for is called its ANTECEDENT Mrs. Flowers opened the book and began reading it.

5 Personal pronouns Refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person) or the one spoken about (third person) SINGULAR PLURAL First person I, me, my, mine We, us, our, ours Second person You, your, yours Third person He, him, his, She, her, hers It, its They, them, their, theirs

6 PRONOUNS (pro)-reflexive (ref)
Reflects back to “self” Singular Plural 1st person myself ourselves 2nd person yourself yourselves 3rd person himself herself itself themselves

7 Demonstrative pronoun (dem)
THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE Points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea Ex: This is Ernie’s bike.

8 Interrogative pronoun (int)
WHAT, WHICH, WHO, WHOM, WHOSE Introduces a question Ex: Who is the author of “Flowers for Algernon”?

9 Relative pronoun (rp) THAT , WHAT, WHICH, WHO, WHOM, WHOSE
Introduces a subordinate (dependent) clause Ex: Mr. White received the two hundred pounds that he had wished for.

10 Indefinite pronouns (ind)
Refer to a person, a place, or a thing that is not specifically named Ex: All of them wanted to hear the story of Urashma Taro. Ex: The travelers saw someone. Most common indefinite pronouns: all, any, anyone, both, each, either, everybody, few, many, none, no one, one, several, some, something

11 ADJECTIVE (adj) Modifies nouns and pronouns (i.e. I have a green pen. They are happy.) Answers the questions “Which one?” “How many?” or “What kind?” ARTICLES (art): a, an, the PROPER ADJECTIVE (Adj): proper noun used as an adjective (American flag)

12 VERB Shows action or helps to make a statement ACTION VERB (av):

13 ACTION VERB (av) Shows action (visible or mental) Examples:
Visible: jump, grow, deliver Mental: believe, know, think Examples: She wrote a note. The dog smells the flower.

14 LINKING VERB (lv) Am Was Be Are Were Being Is Been
Links two words together The most common linking verb is “to be” “sense” verbs are also often linking verbs, such as appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, etc. Ex: The flower smells pretty. (flower=pretty) Am Was Be Are Were Being Is Been

15 HELPING VERB (hv) “helps” an action verb or linking verb
If a verb phrase has four verbs, the first three are helping. If it has three verbs, the first two are helping, etc. Ex: We have been taking notes all day. (Taking is an action verb.) Ex: She will be cold without a jacket. (Be is a linking verb.) BE WILL CAN SHALL MAY HAVE DO am, are, is, was, were, be, being, been will, would can, could shall, should may, might, must have, has, had do, does, did

16 ADVERB (adv) Modifies adjectives (i.e. really cute), verbs (extremely fast), and other adverbs (very easily) Answers the question “How?”, “When?”, “Where?”, or “To what extent?” NOT, NEVER, OFTEN, and ALWAYS are always adverbs

17 PREPOSITION (prep) Shows relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence i.e. We went to school. We went up the stairs. Common prepositions include: across, after, against, around, at, before, below, between, by, during, except, for, from, in, of, off, on, over, since, through, to, under, until, with, according to, because of, instead of, etc.

18 Joins words, phrases, and clauses

acronym FANBOYS (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So) Ex: I ran AND jumped.

not only/but also neither/nor either/or both/and Ex: Both Emily and Hannah have pencils.

Starts adverb (adv) dependent clauses (and therefore must be followed by subject and verb) Most common are: after, since, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as if, etc. Ex: I have known Susan since I was 11.

22 INTERJECTION (int) Expresses emotion but has no real connection with the rest of the sentence Set apart from the sentence by a comma or an exclamation point i.e. No, I’m not finished with my homework. Wow! What a great new car!

23 VERBAL A word formed from a verb but acting as a noun, adjective, or adverb PARTICIPLE (part) GERUND (ger) INFINITIVE (inf)

24 PARTICIPLE (part) Verb acting like an adjective; ends in ING, ED, or other past tense endings i.e. I have running shoes. Frightened, I ran down the street. It’s an unspoken rule.

25 GERUND (ger) Verb acting like a noun; ends in ING i.e. Reading is fun.

26 INFINITIVE (inf) To + verb
Can act like a noun (I like to eat), adjective (It’s the best place to eat), or adverb (I need a pen to write a letter)

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