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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN BEGINNINGS AFRICA."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 1 – section 1 Prehistory – before the written word (5500 years ago) First human like creatures – 4.4 million years ago in Africa Hominids – human beings and human like creatures Anthropology – scientific study of hominids Paleontologists- study fossils Archeologists – unearth and interpret opjects (artifacts)

3 Dating and Findings Radiocarbon dating – technique to determine age
All once living things have radio carbon and it decays at a known rate DNA has advanced the dating process Gen Suwa found the oldest teeth at a site -Tim D. White (Aramis) – in Ethiopia Africa million years old

4 Lucy 45 miles north at Hadar – Donald Johanson – discovered 3.2 million year old skeleton “Lucy”. Later found males and females were different size, walked upright and climbed in trees Found skull 4 million years old Australopithecus - First humans – walked on 2 legs, had had large faces that jutted out, small brains, flat noses and large teeth Lived in Africa – nomadic Homo – means human, named all humans after this point

5 Hominid Groups Scientists divided Homo – humans – into 3 groups
Homo habilis “person with ability” – earliest –lived up to 1.5 million years ago Homo erectus “person who walks upright” – 100,000 tp 200,000 years ago Homo sapiens – “person who thinks” today

6 Ice Ages Between 2 million and 10,000 years ago -4 long periods of cold Only the middle lat. Could support human life Oceans dropped 300 feet Fire and clothing became essential for survival Human Culture – way of life (language, religion, tools, etc.) Use of tools Technology – the skills and knowledge to survive

7 The Stone Age Period before writing 3 periods of time
1. Paleolithic – oldest 2.5 million years ago 2. Mesolithic – middle stone age (12,000 BC to 8000 BC) 3. Neolithic BC to 5000 BC

8 Paleolithic Hunter Gatherers
Homo Habilis – 1st Qrt. Of Paleolithic period Oldest to manufacture tools Larger brains Louis and Mary Leak – much research done by this pair at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania Homo Erectus – gatherers until 500,000 years ago they became hunters (males) Fire – huge discovery Clothing - animal skins Migrations – Homo erectus might have been the first to migrate to Europe and Asia Language – gestures and grunts until about 50,000 years ago Important to pass down their stories

9 Chapter 1 –section 2 (Homo Sapiens)
200,000 years ago Neanderthals – 1st Named after Neander Valley in Germany Stood 5.5 feet tall, larger brains than modern humans, stocky thick boned More advanced tools – spears Lived in 35 to 50 person groups Nomadic cave dwellers May have been the 1st to practice medicine, and life after death

10 Homo Sapien Sapiens Modern humans – dominated the continent 30,000 years ago Cro-Magnons – earliest Sapien Sapiens Taller but less robust Better technology – stone axes, rafts, spears, bow and arrow Law and order to hunt together – moved from caves to permanent homes Cave painting – Lascaux and Vallon Pont-d’arc – both in France Identify prey? or Religion?

11 Neolithic Revolution 5000 years ago people started to produce food –Agriculture, domesticating animals- tame for human purpose Middle East – earliest agriculture – 3000 years before America or China


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