2 Prehistory – the time before there was writing Chapter 2 Section 1Prehistory – the time before there was writingWriting was invented about 5,000 years ago.To study prehistory we rely on the work of archaeologists and anthropologists.Hominid – early ancestor of humans1959 – Mary Leakey found a human bone that dated back more than 1.5 million years ago. It was believed to be of a hominid.
3 Chapter 2 Section 11974 – Donald Johanson found “Lucy”. Lucy is believed to have lived more than 3 million years ago.Johanson could tell that Lucy could walk on 2 legs. This was a key step in human development.Discoveries of ancient bones give us information about early humans and their ancestors.
4 Homo sapiens or “wise man” – same as modern humans Chapter 2 Section 1Early HumansHomo habilis or “handy man” – closely related to modern humans, because they had a larger brain (about ½ the size of modern humans).Homo erectus or “upright man” – used stone tools like the hand ax, and learned to control fire.Homo sapiens or “wise man” – same as modern humans
5 Chapter 2 Section 1Stone AgeThe Stone Age was divided into 3 periods based on the kind of tools used at the time.Tool – any handheld object that has been modified to help a person accomplish a task
6 1st part of the Stone Age was called the Paleolithic Era. Chapter 2 Section 11st part of the Stone Age was called the Paleolithic Era.Lasted about 10,000 years.They used stone tools, mainly to process food. They would make the edge of one side of the rock sharp or jagged.They would later begin to make tools like a hand ax and a spear for hunting.
7 Hunting – Gatherer Societies Chapter 2 Section 1Hunting – Gatherer SocietiesSociety – community of people who share a common cultureHunter – Gatherers – people who hunted animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive.The men hunted and the women gathered.The women also stayed near the camps to take care of the children.
8 The most important development in the early Stone Age was language. Chapter 2 Section 1The most important development in the early Stone Age was language.It made it easier to hunt in groups.It also allowed people to form relationships.It also allowed people to resolve issues, like how to distribute food.
9 Cave paintings were created as a part of a hunting lesson. Chapter 2 Section 1Cave paintings were created as a part of a hunting lesson.Some showed animals near the caves.These may have been used to teach children to identify what they are hunting.Cave paintings were away to express themselves, teach hunting and teach religious beliefs.
10 Otzi was found in 1991 in the Otztal Alps in Italy. Chapter 2 Section 1Otzi the “Iceman”Otzi was found in 1991 in the Otztal Alps in Italy.He was over 5,000 years old.
11 It was a freezing time that ended about 10,000 years ago. Chapter 2 Section 2Ice AgeIt was a freezing time that ended about 10,000 years ago.The Ice Age forced people to start moving.Huge sheets of ice covered most of the earth’s land.Because of the ice many believe that the ocean levels dropped and exposed land bridges.
12 Land bridge – strip of land that connects 2 continents Chapter 2 Section 2Land bridge – strip of land that connects 2 continentsMost scholars believe that this is how people began to spread all over the earth.South America was the last place settled by early humans.
13 They also began making shelters. Chapter 2 Section 2Although fire helped keep people warm in very cold areas, people needed more for protection.To keep warm, they learned to sew animal skins together to make clothing.They also began making shelters.Some made pit houses, which were pits in the ground covered by branches and leaves.
14 Chapter 2 Section 2In Central Asia were wood was a scarce, some early people made their homes out of mammoth bones.
15 Mesolithic Era or Middle Stone Age – lasted about 5,000 years Chapter 2 Section 2Mesolithic Era or Middle Stone Age – lasted about 5,000 yearsPeople found new uses for bones and stone tools.People who lived near water invented hooks and fishing spears.Other groups invented the bow and arrow.Tools became more complex.
16 The biggest change came in how people produced food. Chapter 2 Section 3Neolithic Era or the New Stone Age – people learned to polish stones to make tools like saws and drills.People also learn to make fire, before they could only use fire that was started by natural causes such as lightning.The biggest change came in how people produced food.
17 Neolithic Revolution – shift from food gathering to food producing. Chapter 2 Section 3After a warming trend brought an end to the ice ages, new plants began to grow in some areas.People soon learned that they could plant seeds themselves to grow their own crops.Neolithic Revolution – shift from food gathering to food producing.
18 This led to the development of agriculture or farming. Chapter 2 Section 3Domestication – process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humansThis led to the development of agriculture or farming.Learning how to use animals for their own purpose was important.Farmers could keep sheep and goats for milk, food and wool.
19 This improved peoples chances of survival. Chapter 2 Section 3Farmers could use larger animals like cattle to carry loads or to pull large tools used in farming.This improved peoples chances of survival.People also began building permanent settlements.
20 Some groups began to perform religious ceremonies. Chapter 2 Section 3Some groups began to perform religious ceremonies.Megaliths – huge stones used as monuments or as the sites for religious gatherings.Early people probably believed in gods and goddesses associated with the four elements- air, water, fire, and earth- or animals.One European group honored a thunder god.