2 The First People Preview Starting Points Map: Early People and AgricultureMain Idea / Reading FocusStudying the Distant PastFaces of History: Mary and Louis LeakeyHuman OriginsQuick Facts: Early HominidsSpreading Around the World
3 The First People Preview, continued Map: Migration of Early Humans Life in the Stone Age
4 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
5 The First People Main Idea Reading Focus Scientific evidence suggests that modern humans spread from Africa to other lands and gradually developed ways to adapt to their environment.Reading FocusWhat methods are used to study the distant past?What does evidence suggest about human origins?How did early people spread around the world?How did early people adapt to life in the Stone Age?
6 Studying the Distant Past Much of the human story remains a mystery.Writing has existed for only about 5,000 years.To study prehistory, scholars must find and interpret clues.Study culture: knowledge, art, customsExamine artifacts: objects that people in the past made or usedAnthropologistsDig at sites where people have left tracesUse a variety of methods to date and analyze objects foundArchaeologists–Anthropology continues to expand and revise our picture of the prehistoric past.
7 How do scientists learn about prehistory? Find the Main IdeaHow do scientists learn about prehistory?Answer(s): by studying fossils, artifacts, and remains
8 Human OriginsWhere did the first people come from? When did they appear? Some key discoveries have provided important pieces to the puzzle.1959—East AfricaMary Leakey finds skull fragmentsHominid: humanlike being that walked upright1974—EthiopiaJohanson finds “Lucy”4 foot-tall hominid who walked uprightlived 4 to 5 million years agoEarly HominidsMore advanced hominids from about 3 million years ago1960s—TanzaniaLouis LeakeyHomo habilis (“handy man”)More humanlike featuresMade and used crude stone toolsLater Hominids
10 Other hominids Modern humans Homo erectus (“upright man”) 2 to 1.5 million years ago in AfricaLarger brain; more skillful hunterFirst hominid to control fireModern humansHomo sapiens (“wise man”)200,000 years agoLarger brain; more sophisticated toolsLearned to create fireFirst to develop language
12 Identify Supporting Details What four main types of hominids have scientists identified based on fossil evidence?Answer(s): Australopithecine, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens
13 Spreading Around the World Climate and MigrationHominids learned to adaptBegan to move out of AfricaMovement occurred over hundreds of thousands of yearsThe Ice AgesBegan 1.6 million years agoLong periods of freezing weather cycled with warmer periodsAsia and North America joined at Bering StraitOut of AfricaHomo erectus first hominid to migrateFossils found in Asia and EuropeHomo sapiens migrated around 100,000 years agoMight have used boatsAdapting to New EnvironmentsAdapted as they migratedTwo groups of Homo sapiens:– Neanderthals– Cro-Magnons
14 How did the ice ages influence early human migration? Analyze InformationHow did the ice ages influence early human migration?Answer(s): The ocean level dropped, exposing land bridges that allowed early humans to migrate around the world.
16 Life in the Stone Age Technology Art and Religion The first humans lived during the Stone Age, when people made tools mainly from stone.Paleolithic Era2.5 million to 10,000 years agoStone Age people lived as nomadsSheltered under rock overhangs or in cavesHunter-gatherersFirst tools: crude chipped stonesLater tools: wood and boneSpears for huntingNets and traps for fish and birdsCanoes from logsClothing from animal skinsShelters from skins, wood, bonesTechnologySocieties began to formCommon culturelanguageartreligionAnimismBelief in life after death?Art and Religion
17 How did Stone Age people use technology to adapt and survive? SummarizeHow did Stone Age people use technology to adapt and survive?Answer(s): used fire, made tools and weapons