Presentation on theme: "A DJECTIVE C LAUSES. First, let’s remember that adjectives modify (or describe) nouns and pronouns. Example: - Intelligent students understand grammar."— Presentation transcript:
First, let’s remember that adjectives modify (or describe) nouns and pronouns. Example: - Intelligent students understand grammar rules. (The word "intelligent" is an adjective because it describes the noun "students.") * But adjectives are not always single words. Sometimes they are clauses: Example: - Students who are intelligent understand grammar rules. (The adjective clause is underlined. It is an "adjective" clause because it describes the noun "students.")
R EMINDER A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. (unlike a phrase) Please recognize that noun clauses and adjective clauses are dependent clauses. A dependent clause is one that cannot stand by itself. If a dependent clause is placed alone, it forms a fragment, not a sentence. An independent clause (or main clause) can act as a sentence by itself, but dependent clauses cannot.
H OW TO RECOGNIZE AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE WHEN YOU SEE ONE. An adjective clause—also called an adjectival or relative clause—will meet three requirements: First, it will contain a subject and verb. Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why]. Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions: What kind? How many? or Which one?
R ELATIVE P RONOUNS Who & whom = used for people, which = used for things, that = used for things and people, whose = used to show possession. Relative pronouns introduce the clause and they also function inside the clause as a subject or object.
1.Students who are intelligent get good grades. 2.Fruit that is grown organically is expensive. 3.The book which is on the table is mine. Examples 1 The adjective clause here modifies a noun (students, fruit, the book). The relative pronoun here act as a subject of the adjective clause (who, that, which). An adjective clause closely follows the noun it modifies( incorrect= the book is mine which is on the table.).
Examples 2 1.The girl who(m) you teach is my sister. 2.The girl that you teach is my sister. 3.The girl Ø you teach is my sister. 1.The book which I had read fell on the floor. 2.The book that I had read fell on the floor. 3.The book Ø I had read fell on the floor. The girl is my sister. You teach her. The book fell on the floor. I had read it. - Here the adjective pronoun is used as the object of the verb. - In 3 the object pronoun is omitted from the adjective clause.
Examples 3 - She is the doctor. I told you about her. 1.She is the doctor about whom I told you. 2.She is the doctor who I told you about. 3.She is the doctor that I told you about. 4.She is the doctor I told you about. - The meeting was boring. You went to it. 1.The meeting to which you went was boring. 2.The meeting which you went to was boring. 3.The meeting that you went to was boring. 4.The meeting Ø you went to was boring. - The preposition could come at the beginning of the adjective clause like1. Only whom or which could be used in this case. -In everyday usage, it comes after the subject and the verb of the adjective clause like2, 3, and 4.