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THE MONGOL AND MING. Mongol Origins  Nomadic horse people  N. China Grasslands  Raised horses, tended sheep  Felt tents: Yerts, Ger  Language:

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Presentation on theme: "THE MONGOL AND MING. Mongol Origins  Nomadic horse people  N. China Grasslands  Raised horses, tended sheep  Felt tents: Yerts, Ger  Language:"— Presentation transcript:



3 Mongol Origins  Nomadic horse people  N. China Grasslands  Raised horses, tended sheep  Felt tents: Yerts, Ger  Language: Altaic (Rel. To Turkic, Manchurian)  Could not marry between tribes and clans

4 Organization  Families-->Clans-->Tribes-->  Tribes gathered during annual migration  Chiefs elected. Based on nobility, military ability, wisdom, leadership skills  Religion: Shamanism  Nature deities, but key God is the Sky God  Sacred color: blue

5 Temujin: Ghengis Khan  b. 1167, son of tribal chief  Father poisoned…fled as youth  Returned as adult, avenged father, Eventually chief  By age forty had unified all Mongol tribes  Battles, alliances, ability to survive  Elected as the Great Khan  Amazing talents along with sons and grandsons

6 positive aspects of the Mongol conquests  promoted commercial and cultural exchanges global civilizations  stable government based on precedents in  provided lengthy period of peace

7 Mongol Army Tactics  All males 15-70 served in army  Organized into“Myriads” (10,000’s)  Units within each of 1000, 100, and 10  Unpaid  Elaborate signals  Soldiers supplied military equipment

8 Conquest  Intelligence gathering high priority  Foreign experts and advisors  Every man carried own supplies; had 2 horses.  Loyalty oaths  Creation of Yasa, law code

9 32 million square kilometers

10 Divisions at Genghis Khan’s Death  Four Khanates  Kipchak Khanate (Golden Hoarde) Russia  IlKhanate Persia  Chagatai Khanate Mongolia  Great Khanate China, Outer Mongolia, Border States, to which the others owed allegiance. Later became the Yuan Dynasty

11 China under Mongol Rule  Kublai Khan conquered all of China and defeated the Song.  Ruled from Cambulac (Beijing)  Called himself the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368)  Building Projects  Religious Toleration  Ethnic Ranking  Marco Polo spent 17 years in Kublai’s service

12 Decline and succession o Chinese never really accepted as legitimate o Succession wars between heirs and generals oHigh Taxes, Corrupt officials oPaper money controversy oYellow River changed course and flooded Grand Canal among other natural disasters oDecentralization & Rise of Warlords oLast Khan fled to Mongolia in 1368 after the Red Turbans Buddhist led revolts

13 The Ming Restore Chinese Rule  After Kublai Khan’s death, the Chinese despised the foreign Mongol rulers.  Zhu Yuanzhang defeated the Mongols back to the other side of the great wall & began the Ming (brilliant) Dynasty  The Ming ended foreign rule and restored Chinese traditions.  Revival of the arts & better methods of printing which led to a flood of books

14 In addition, Hongwu worked to eliminate Mongol influences and revive traditional Chinese values and practices, like Confucian principles. 1368, peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang, rebel army, overthrew last Mongol emperor Zhu took name Hongwu, “vastly martial,” founded Ming dynasty Ming means “brilliant”; dynasty lasted nearly 300 years, until 1644 China under Ming Rule The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) rulers gained control of Korea, Mongolia, parts of Central, Southeast Asia worked to rebuild China Reduced taxes, improved trade, agriculture, increased stability Rebuilding China

15 Prosperity Improved methods of irrigation increased farm production Peasants produced huge rice crops in southern river valleys Growth of Cities, Industries As population grew, so did cities Industries like manufacture of porcelain, silk expanded in response to growing European demand At same time, China remained mainly agricultural society Growth of Crops, Population 1500s, new crops like corn, sweet potatoes from Americas reached China crops further increased farm output Stability, plentiful food led to substantial population growth Ming Economy and Society

16 Social hierarchy and mobility  scholar-officials, farmers, artisans, and merchants  scholar-official-landlord  learning, political power, and economic wealth  local elite (gentry) and lineage  lack of work ethic  literati’s long gown  foot-binding for women

17 China’s Tributary System  Traditional system for managing foreign relations  The ``Central Kingdom” worldview  Ming dynasty had the most extensive tributary system  tributes from East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and even West Asia and Africa

18 Expanded Power Hongwu also greatly expanded power as emperor Did away with positions of some high level officials, took over more control of government As result, Ming emperors more powerful than in previous dynasties Eliminated anyone challenging authority; killed thousands of rivals Values, Traditions To obtain government officials educated in Confucian ideas, Hongwu restored, improved civil service examination system To root out corruption, increased influence of censors, officials who monitored government

19 Yonglo  In 1398 Hongwu died  Following power struggle, son Yonglo became emperor  Ruled from 1402 until 1424  Moved Ming capital to Beijing, in northeast China  Built vast imperial city at center of Beijing  City complex became known as Forbidden City because most people forbidden from entering

20 Zheng He’s fleet (1405 - 1433)  Over 300 ships & 20,000 men  trade and commerce  Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia, and East Africa

21 China and the World 1405 – the voyages by Zheng He - to promote trade & collect tribute.  Showed others the power of the Chinese empire.  After he died, sea trading was halted b/c Confucian scholars were loyal to tradition & didn’t want foreign influence.  China missed its opportunity.

22 European Influence Some Europeans gained influence in China One was Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit priest; arrived 1583 Mongol Threat Ming also faced renewed Mongol threat to north To improve defense, Ming restored China’s Great Wall European Learning Ricci learned Chinese, adopted customs to gain acceptance Introduced European learning in math, science Great Wall Parts of earlier walls repaired, but most construction new Much of Great Wall seen today built during Ming period Outside Influences

23 The policy to end the voyages was part of a move in Ming China toward isolation from the outside world. 1500s, move toward isolation gained full force Ming heavily restricted foreign trade and travel Foreign merchants allowed to trade only at few ports, during certain times Policies impossible to enforce; smugglers carried out brisk trade with foreign merchants Ming Foreign Relations Arrival of European traders, Christian missionaries influenced decision to isolate China Europeans introduced new goods and ideas Ming disliked European influences Sought to preserve Chinese traditions Beginning of Isolation Ming Foreign Relations

24 Ming China weakened; the Manchu, a people to northwest in Manchuria, saw their chance 1644, Manchu swept into Beijing, took capital Last Ming emperor killed himself to avoid capture Manchu formed own dynasty; gave it Chinese name—Qing The Manchu Late 1500s, Ming Dynasty began to decline Weak rulers took throne, corruption increased under their rule Defense efforts drained treasury; rulers raised taxes 1600s, high taxes, crop failures led to famine, hardship; rebellions broke out Reasons for Decline Ming Decline

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