Presentation on theme: "The Yuan and Ming Dynasties Chapter 7.4. The Mongol Empire Northern China, throughout history had been attacked by nomadic people over and over. One of."— Presentation transcript:
The Mongol Empire Northern China, throughout history had been attacked by nomadic people over and over. One of the groups of nomads were the Mongols. For centuries, these Mongol tribes lived separately in regions of North China. In 1206, a powerful leader, or khan, united the Mongols. His name was Temujin. When Temujin became leader, he was given a new title: “Universal Leader” or Genghis Khan. Ghenghis Khan and his Mongol Empire
For 20 years, Genghis Khan and his powerful army of Mongols terrorized people throughout much of Asia and Eastern Europe. In 1211, the Mongols attacked China, wrecking whole towns and farmlands. By the time he died in 1227, all Northern China was under Mongol control.
The Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368 (China ruled by the Mongols) In 1260, Genghis Khan’s grandson, Kublai Khan became ruler of the Mongol Empire. In 1279, he overthrew China and declared himself the emperor of China and this began the Yuan (yoo-EN) dynasty. For the first time in in China’s history, it was ruled by foreigners. These Mongols spoke different languages, worshipped different gods, wore different clothes, and celebrated different customs. The Chinese resented this and saw it as rude and uncivilized. Kublai Khan
During the Yuan dynasty: The Chinese were not forced to accept the way of the Mongols, but some Mongols adopted Chinese culture (like Confucianism). The Chinese were not allowed to gain too much power. The Mongols placed a special tax on the Chinese. This money was used on public- works projects like The Grand Canal Roads Palaces They welcomed sea trade with India and Southeast Asia. Marco Polo, an Italian merchant sailor, traveled in and around China between 1271-1295. He was welcomed and well respected by the Mongol government. He even served in Kublia Khan’s court. He wrote a book that sparked much European interest in China. Marco Polo and Kublai Khan’s Court
Fall of the Yuan Dynasty The Mongols wanted more land. In 1274 and 1281- they decided to invade Japan – but the campaigns were disastrous. Met with violent storms and fierce defenders and this destroyed the Mongol force. The Mongols were financially weak from huge public works projects. In 1368, a former monk named Zhu Yuanzhang, took charge of the rebel army and led them in a victorious battle that overthrew the Mongols. Finally, China was once again ruled by the Chinese and led way for the final dynasty…the Ming dynasty. 3 reasons Yuan dynasty fell 1.Failed campaigns at sea weakened the military. 2.Huge public-work projects weakened economy. 3.Build up of Chinese resentment
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 One of the most stable and prosperous times in China’s history. They were known for: Great sea voyages Great building projects
Great Sea Voyages Improved their ships and sailing skills Greatest sailor of this period was Zheng He (juhng HUH) 1405-1433 he led 7 voyages around Asia. One voyage included more than 60 ships and 25,000 sailors. Some ships were larger than 300 feet long (1 football field!) These voyages rank among the most impressive in the seafaring history. His voyages served as a clear sign of China’s power.
Great Building Projects to impress Chinese and enemies to the North Forbidden City – A 9,000 room palace with hundreds of imperial residences, temples, and other government buildings – “Forbidden” to the common people. Restoration of Great Wall – 12 ft. wide, 25 ft. tall and 2,000 miles long (distance from San Diego to NY)
Under the Ming Dynasty China withdrew from other foreign influences Censors were used to monitor behavior and quality of education In 1430’s a new emperor ban all Zheng’s fleets and Chinese from foreign travel and trade Entered a time of Isolationism Isolationism was a policy of avoiding contact with other countries. This ended up hurting China in the long run. China was unaware of what technology growth in other parts of the world and this affected their ability to “stay up with the times”. By 1644 China was overthrown again because they were too weak to stop it.