A Bit on the Yuan Dynasty, But More on the Ming and Qing Dynasties World Civilizations.
Published byModified over 4 years ago
Presentation on theme: "A Bit on the Yuan Dynasty, But More on the Ming and Qing Dynasties World Civilizations."— Presentation transcript:
A Bit on the Yuan Dynasty, But More on the Ming and Qing Dynasties World Civilizations
The Yuan Dynasty Mongol dynasty (first foreign rule) –Led by Kublai Khan Grew dynasty outside of China (Korea & parts of SE Asia) Highest positions in gov’t given to Mongols Marco Polo traveled China for 17 years = European interest in China
The Yuan Dynasty Cont’d Time of stability Extensive trade w/ Europe –Glass, hides, clothes, silver, cotton, & carpets Ended w/ death of Khan
The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Zhu Yuanzhang, a former Buddhist monk, led the overthrow of the Yuan dynasty. As emperor, he took the name Hong Wu. New law codes were harsher (public whippings).
The Ming Dynasty, cont. The old civil service examination system was restored, with even stricter tests. Free land in the north was offered to farmers who would move there and protect the north from invasion. With strong rulers and a prosperous economy, this was a relatively peaceful time for China.
The Ming Dynasty, cont. Zhang He led explorations to Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and eastern Africa. Later explorations were halted by the government, who saw no benefit to trade.
The Ming Dynasty, cont. Ming rulers built the lavish Forbidden City in Beijing as the emperor’s residence. The Ming dynasty was weakened by corruption and overspending, leading to conquest by the Manchus.
Forbidden City “Forbidden”-no one could enter w/out emperor’s permission Built from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,707 bays of rooms and covers 720,000 square meters. http://www.chinavista.com/beijing/gugong/m ap.htmlhttp://www.chinavista.com/beijing/gugong/m ap.html
The Qing (Manchu) Dynasty (1644-1911) The Manchus attempted to adopt Chinese customs, but did impose some of their own on China. Chinese men worked in the government, but the highest positions belonged to Manchus. The military was mostly made up of Manchus.
The Qing Dynasty, cont. Early Qing emperors reduced taxes, began public works projects and extended China’s territory. The economy remained mostly agricultural (3/4 of people lived in rural areas). Silk production and domestic trade were also significant.
The Qing Dynasty, cont. European contacts were reluctantly developed. Portuguese sailors were originally denied trading rights. The Portuguese built a trading base at Macao in the 1600s.
The Qing Dynasty, cont. Christian missionaries followed, and impressed the Chinese with their scientific knowledge. They were forced to leave in the 1700s without making China a Christian nation.
The Qing Dynasty, cont. The Qing began a slow decline in the 1700s due to misuse of taxes and peasant rebellions. In the Taiping Rebellion of 1850, Chinese Christians tried to replace the Qing with a “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace.” It was unsuccessful, but the Qing was now vulnerable to European imperialism.