Presentation on theme: "Government & Economic Systems A Journey Into Human Geography."— Presentation transcript:
Government & Economic Systems A Journey Into Human Geography
Two important traits of culture GOVERNMENT: –Reflect the beliefs about authority, independence and human rights. ECONOMIC SYSTEMS –Reflect people’s ideas about the use of natural resources & distribution of wealth.
Economic Systems Traditional Economy –Subsistence Economies Produce for survival Little surplus produced Primary economic activities Market Economy –Capitalism Private ownership of business Production based on supply & demand Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities Command Economy –Communism Businesses are controlled by government Production based upon government’s self-interest Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary activities Usually lacks technological advancement.
Characteristics that define a country: 1.Territory 2.Population 3.Sovereignty 4.Government
Territory Def: a geographic area that is owned and controlled by a particular government or country. –Territory includes : Land, water, and natural resources. –A country’s resources may be more important than it’s size The earth’s natural resources are not evenly distributed. Several factors play an important role in how a country defines it’s boundaries: –Natural division (Rhine River) –Geographic factors (United Kingdom) –Political conflict (Poland & Austria)
Population Def: all of the people who inhabit an area, region, or country. –The size of a population does not determine the existence of a country. Netherlands Population deals with size AND with culture. –Based upon nationality, ethnicity, religion, or class.
Sovereignty Def: a country’s ability to rule itself. –Freedom from outside control –Establishes its own policies Geographic factors affects sovereignty. –Isolation: UK, Switzerland –Vulnerability: Poland & Belgium
Government Def: institutions or individuals who have power to make & enforce laws for a country. –Purpose of government: Protects society from outside threats Provides services for citizens Keeps order Governments classified according to it’s structure & basis of authority.
Government Structure Unitary SystemFederal System (federation) Confederation Strong national government Local governments at the mercy of national government Examples: Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Italy, Greece, Ukraine Most governments in world are unitary! Strong national government Power is divided between national and local government Examples: (USA), Germany, Austria, Belguim, Switzerland Strong local government National government is at mercy of local government (weak) Example: Confederation of Independent States (former USSR) Usually unsuccessful!
Government Authority Three types: –Democracy –Monarchy –Authoritarian
Government Authority Democracy –Two forms: Direct Democracy –People make decisions themselves Representative Democracy (Republic) –People elect representatives to do the work of government for them. –Government of the people People participate in government Monarchy –Two forms Absolute Monarchy –King/Queen make all political decisions Representative Monarchy (most common today!) –King/Queen shares power with legislative branch –Mix between democracy & monarchy –Divine Right (“royal family”)
Government Authority Authoritarian –Two forms Dictatorship –Leaders hold all political power Totalitarian –Extreme form of dictatorship –Government tries to control all aspects of citizen’s lives. –Use of military force or terror to gain & exercise power. Citizens have NO say in their government.