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The Articles of Confederation  approved November 15, 1777  a “firm league of friendship” among the states.

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Presentation on theme: "The Articles of Confederation  approved November 15, 1777  a “firm league of friendship” among the states."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Articles of Confederation

3  approved November 15, 1777  a “firm league of friendship” among the states

4 Who was the first president of the United States? John Hanson (1781-1782)

5  unicameral Congress  All states had one vote, regardless of population or wealth.  What is missing from the Articles?

6 make war and peace send and receive ambassadors make treaties borrow money and set up a money system establish post offices build a navy raise an army by asking the states to send troops fix uniform standards of weights and measures settle disputes among the states

7 to obey acts of Congress provide funds and troops requested regard citizens and acts of other states as binding surrender fugitives from justice to each other submit disputes to Congress provide for open travel among the states

8 no power to tax—could only borrow no power to regulate trade among the states or with foreign powers no power to enforce laws (no executive and no judicial system) needed the consent of 9 of 13 states for laws to pass could not amend without all 13 states (No amendment was ever passed!) only one vote for each state, regardless of size could not enforce treaties no effective military force

9 RRevolutionary War ends October 19, 1781 pproblems soon started to surface economic chaos leads to violence

10  1786- Daniel Shays leads an armed uprising


12  Maryland and Virginia (March 1785)  5/13 states (September 1786)  Call for another meeting in Philadelphia in 1787

13 The Founding Fathers were not stupid. Why did they design the Articles of Confederation with a weak central government?



16  unanimously elected George Washington as president of the convention  majority of states needed to conduct business  each state delegation had one vote  majority of votes would carry a proposal  kept their deliberations secret to avoid outside pressure


18 The Virginia Plan The New Jersey Plan Similarities

19 The Virginia Plan Randolph Plan/ Large- State Plan created by James Madison; presented by Randolph  3 separate branches (legislative, executive and judicial)  bicameral legislature  representation based on population or money given The New Jersey Plan Paterson Plan/ Small- State Plan  unicameral Congress  each state equally represented  granted Congress the power to tax and regulate trade between the states  “federal executive” of more than one person  “federal judiciary”

20 The Virginia Plan -bicameral legislature -representation based on population The New Jersey Plan -unicameral legislature -equal representation in Congress -Congress can levy taxes similarities -3 branches (legislative, judicial and executive) -Congress can regulate trade

21  Congress should be composed of two houses smaller Senate: states represented equally larger House: states represented based on population

22  Should slaves be counted in the populations of the southern states?  “all free persons” should be counted, and so, too should “three-fifths of all other persons”  same formula used in fixing the amount of money to be raised in each state by any tax levied by Congress

23 StateTotal PopulationSlave Population% Slave Population Connecticut238,0002,6481.11 % Delaware59,0008,88715.06% Georgia83,00029,26435.26% Maryland320,000103,03632.20% Massachusetts476,00000% New Hampshire142,0001570.11% New Jersey184,00011,4236.21% New York340,00021,1936.23% North Carolina394,000100,78325.58% Pennsylvania434,0003,7070.85% Rhode Island69,0009581.39% South Carolina249,000107,09443.01% Virginia692,000292,62742.29%

24  Congress had the power to regulate foreign and interstate trade  Why was the south upset with this idea?  Congress can’t tax exports and could not act on the slave trade for at least 20 years

25  39 signed—3 refused

26 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

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