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Chapter 19 Bacteria and Viruses.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 Bacteria and Viruses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19 Bacteria and Viruses

2 19-1 Bacteria The invention of the microscope opened our eyes to the hidden, living world around us Microscopic life covers nearly every square centimeter of Earth

3 Prokaryotes The smallest and most common microorganisms
Unicellular organisms that lack a nucleusand membrane bound organelles bacteria

4 Classifying Prokaryotes
Until recently, all prokaryotes were placed in a single kingdom - monera More recently, biologists have begun to appreciate that prokaryotes can be divided into two very different kingdoms: the eubacteriaand the archaebacteria

5 Eubacteria Eubacteria include a wide range of organisms with different lifestyles Eubacteria live almost everywhere


7 Archaebacteria Lack the same carbohydrates of eubacteria and also have different membrane lipids Also, the DNA sequences of key archaebacterial genes are more like those of eukaryotes than those of eubacteria Many archaebacteria live in extremely harsh environments

8 Identifying Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes are identified by characteristics such as shape, the chemical nature of their cell walls, the way they move and the way they obtain energy

9 Shapes Bacilli – rod shaped Cocci – spherical shaped
Spirilla – spiral and corkscrew shaped


11 Cell Walls Eubacteria – have peptigoglycan
Archaebacteia – don’t have peptigoglycan

12 Movement Some bacteria move differently than others

13 Metabolic Diversity No characteristic of prokaryotes illustrates their diversity better than the way they obtain energy

14 Heterotrophs Must take inorganic molecules for both energy and a supply of carbon

15 Photoheterotrophs These organisms are photosynthetic using sunlight for energy but they also need to take in organic compounds as a carbon source

16 Photoautotrophs Use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds and oxygen in a process similar to that used by green plants Ex.) cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

17 Chemoautotrophs Can perform chemosynthesis
Make organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide Unlike photoautotrophs, however they do not require light as a source of energy. Instead they use energy directly from chemical reactions

18 Releasing Energy Like all organisms, bacteria need a constant supply of energy This energy is released by the process of cellular respiration or fermentation or both

19 Obligate aerobes Require a constant supply of oxygen in order to live

20 Obligate anaerobes Do not require oxygen and if fact may be killed by it

21 Facultative anaerobes
Can survive with or without oxygen

22 Growth and Reproduction
Bacteria can grow really fast If unlimited space and food were available to a single bacterium and if all of its offspring divided every 20 minutes in just 48 hours they would reach a mass of approximately 4000 times the mass of the earth!

23 Binary Fission When a bacterium has grown so that it has nearly doubled in size, it replicates its DNA and divides in half producing 2 identical daughter cells

24 Binary Fission Bacterial reproduction, asexual reproduction

25 Conjugation Many bacteria are also able to exchange genetic information by a process called conjugation This transfer of genetic information increases genetic diversity


27 Spore Formation When growth conditions become unfavorable, many bacteria form structures called spores

28 Endospore A type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm

29 Endospore

30 Importance of Bacteria
Bacteria are vital to maintaining the living world Some are producers that capture energy by photosynthesis Others are decomposers that break down the nutrients in dead matter and the atmosphere Still other bacteria have human uses

31 Decomposers As decomposers, bacteria help the ecosystem recycle nutrients, therefore maintaining equilibrium in the environment

32 Nitrogen Fixers You may recall that plants need nitrogen to make amino acids, the building blocks of protiens Nitrogen gas (N2) makes up approximately 78 percent of Earth’s atmosphere However, plants can’t use nitrogen gas directly Nitrogen must first be changed chemically to ammonia (NH3) or other nitrogen compounds

33 Nitrogen fixation Process which turns unusable nitrogen gas into useful nitrogen containing compounds Allows nitrogen atoms to continually cycle through the biosphere Many plants have symbiotic relationships with nitrogen fixing bacteria


35 Human Uses of Bacteria Used in food and beverage production
Industries: petroleum, water, mining, drugs Inside of us (symbiosis) E.coli Drug research

36 19 – 2 Viruses

37 Viruses Particles of nucleic acid, protein, and sometimes lipids
Viruses can reproduce only by infecting living cells A typical virus is composed of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat Viruses are very small. They can only be seen with an electron microscope


39 Capsid A viruses protein coat
The capsid proteins of a typical virus bind to receptors on the surface of a cell and “trick” the cell into allowing it inside Once inside, the viral genes are expressed and causes the host cell to make copies of the virus and in the process the host cell is destroyed Because viruses must bind precisely to proteins on the cell surface and then use a hosts genetic system, most viruses are highly specific to the cells they infect

40 Viral Infection Once the virus is inside the host cell, two different processes may occur

41 Lytic Infection In a lytic infection, a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst


43 A literary approach to lytic virus infections
In its own way, a lytic virus is similar to a desperado in the Old West. First, the outlaw eliminates the town’s existing authority (host cell DNA). Then, the desperado demands to be outfitted with new weapons, horses, and riding equipment by terrorizing the local people (using the host cell to make proteins). Finally, the desperado forms a gang that leaves the town to attack new communities (the host cell bursts, releasing hundreds of virus particles).

44 Lysogenic Infection In a lysogenic infection, a virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell, and the viral genetic information replicates along with the host cells DNA Unlike lytic viruses, lysogenic viruses do not lyse the host cell right away. Instead, a lysogenic virus remains inactive for a period of time Eventually, only one of a number of factors may activate the DNA of a prophage which will then remove itself from the host cell DNA and direct the synthesis of new viruses particles


46 Retroviruses Viruses that contain RNA as their genetic information
When retroviruses infect a cell, they produce a DNA copy of their RNA Ex.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Feline leukemia virus

47 Viruses and Living Cells
Viruses must infect a living cell in order to grow and reproduce They also take advantage of the host’s respiration, nutrition and all the other functions that occur in living things Therefore, viruses are considered to be parasites

48 Parasites organisms that live on or in a host organism from which it obtains nutrients, and it usually does harm to the host

49 Are viruses alive? Cells and Viruses Characteristic Cell Virus
Structure Cell membrane, cytoplasm; eukaryotes also contain nucleus and organelles Reproduction Independent cell division either asexually or sexually Genetic Code DNA Growth and Development Yes; in multicellular organisms, cells increase in number and differentiate Obtain and Use Energy yes Response to Environment Change Over Time

50 19 – 3 Diseases Caused by Bacteria and Viruses
Bacteria and viruses are everywhere in nature, but only a few cause disease

51 Pathogens Disease causing agents
All viruses reproduce by infecting living cells, and disease results when the infection causes harm to the host All bacteria require nutrients and energy: however, disease results when bacteria interfere with the host’s ability to obtain enough of those elements to function properly

52 Bacterial Disease in Humans
Bacteria produce disease in one of two general ways Some bacteria damage the cells and tissues of the host by breaking down the cells for food Other bacteria release toxins that travel throughout the body interfering with the normal activity of the host

53 Preventing Bacterial Disease
Many bacterial disease can be prevented by stimulating the bodies immune system with vaccines

54 Vaccine A preparation of weakened or killed pathogen
When injected into the body, a vaccine sometimes prompts the body to produce immunity to the disease If a bacterial infection does occur, a number of drugs can be used to attack and destroy the invading bacteria

55 Antibiotics Compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria NOT virus

56 Controlling Bacteria There are various methods used to control bacterial growth, including sterilization, disinfectants, and food processing

57 Sterilization by Heat Many bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for a long time, so most can be killed by exposure to high heat Ex.) pasteurization

58 Disinfectants Chemical solutions that kill pathogenic bacteria (chlorine)

59 Food Storage and Processing
Food that is stored at a low temperature will stay fresh longer because bacteria cannot reproduce fast at cold temperatures Also, a lot of the processing procedures that are used in the food industry raise the temperature of food to a point where the bacteria are killed

60 Viral Disease in Humans
Like bacteria, viruses produce disease by disrupting the body’s normal equilibrium Unlike bacterial diseases, viruses can’t be treated with antibiotics The best way to protect against most viral diseases lies in prevention by the use of vaccines

61 Viral Disease in Animals
Viruses produce serious animal diseases Ex.) Foot-and-mouth disease, Rous sarcoma

62 Viral Disease in Plants
Many viruses infect plants Ex.) Tobacco mosaic virus, potato yellow dwarf virus


64 Viroids and Prions Scientists have discovered two virus-like particles that also cause disease

65 Viroids Single stranded RNA molecules that have no surrounding capsid
Cause disease in plants


67 Prions Proteins that cause disease in animals Ex.) Mad cow disease


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